Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan

Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan

Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan. Established as the homeland of Indian Muslims in 1947, Pakistan has had a tumultuous history that unfolded in the midst of terrible regional and international conflicts. In the grip of assassinations, coups d’état, ethnic strife and the break-up of Bangladesh in 1971, the country has too often found itself grappling with religious extremism and military authoritarianism. Now, in an in-depth biography of her homeland amid the throes of global change, Ayesha Jalal provides an insider assessment of how this nuclear-weaponized Muslim nation evolved as it did and explains why its dilemmas weigh so heavily on the prospects for peace in the region. .

Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan
Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan

Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan. Attentive to Pakistan’s external relations as well as its internal dynamics, Jalal shows how the strained relations with the United States, the border disputes with Afghanistan in the west and the conflict with India over Kashmir in the The generals played into the hands of the generals who bought security at the cost of strong democratic institutions. Combined with national ethnic and regional rivalries, these pressures have created a siege mentality that encourages military domination and militant extremism.

Struggle for Pakistan

Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan
Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 5 Struggle for Pakistan

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CHAPTER 5

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Students will be able to:

• Trace back the genesis and rationale of the Lahore Resolution with particular reference to Jinnah’s Presidential Address.

• Discuss the salient features of the Cripps Offer with special reference to the Muslim demand for Pakistan

• Bring out the impact of Quit India Movement on Indian politics, with special reference to the consolidation of Muslim League.

• Underscore the salient features of the C.R. Formula and the impact of Gandhi-Jinnah talks on future course of Indian politics.

• Point out the main provisions of the Simla Conference (1945) and explain the causes of its failure.

• Describe the main issues in 1945-46 General Elections, and results of the Central Assembly elections and, provincial elections.

• Discuss how the Muslim League’s astounding success validated its claim to be Muslim India’s sole spokesman and the demand for Pakistan.

• Evaluate the Cabinet Mission proposals, with special reference to the grouping and limited Centre-provisions.

• Discuss why the Muslim League first accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan and then rejected it, and decided to launch Direct-action.

• Specify the proposals for the Interim government, the British betrayal, the setting up of the Interim government, and the League’s entry into it.

• Assess the role of Liquate Ali Khan as Finance Minister in convincing the Congress leadership of the impossibility of a Congress-League coalition at the Centre.

• Discuss the London Conference and its implication for the acceptance of the Pakistan demand.

• Describe the appointment of Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy and making of the partition plan.

• Discuss the salient features of the 3rd June Plan and the Indian Independence Act (1947).

• Trace back the various developments from 3rd June leading to the emergence of Pakistan on 14th August, 1947.

• Elaborate the role of Quaid-e-Azam as the founder of Pakistan.

• Discuss the role played by the minorities in the creation of Pakistan.

Pakistan Resolution (Lahore Resolution), 1940

Background

The Muslim League had been trying to reach an agreement with the Congress on the following points:

1 The Congress should recognize the Muslim League as the representative body of the Muslims of India.

2 The Muslims of India should not be taken as a minor community. Instead they should be recognized as a separate nation.

Circumstances proved that a compromise between the Congress and the Muslim League could not be reached. Ultimately the Muslim League realised that the Hindu-Muslim unity was never possible. The failure of Lucknow Pact in reply to Nehru Report and the Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam changed the shape of Indian Politics. Instead of uniting against the British Imperialism, the gulf between the two nations widened. Allama lqbal’s Allahabad Address showed the Muslims a clear destination. In the light of these events, the Muslim League Leadership concluded that the Muslim majority provinces of the sub-continent should be given the status of an independent state.

The annual meeting of the Muslim League was held at Lahore on 23rd March, 1940. A huge gathering was held at Minto Park. Responsibility of the Quaid-e-Azam’s body guards was given to the Frontier Muslims. In his presidential address, he explained Two Nation Theory and presented arguments in favour of a free and independent Muslim State. He said that history had presented evidences that these nations could never live together. He said that the Hindus and the Muslims belonged to two different religions, civilizations and cultures. They do not intermarry. The Hindus and the Muslims derive their inspirations from different sources of history. Hero of the one nation is a villain of the other.

Mussalmans are a nation according to any definition of a nation, and they must have their own homeland. We want to see the spiritual, cultural, economic and political development of our people.

The Resolution

In the light of Quaid-e-Azam’s speech, the Bengal Chief Minister, called the Lion of Bengal, Maulvi A.K FazI ul Haq, moved the following resolution:

That is the considered view of this session of the All India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country unless it is designed on the following basic principles that:

1 Geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial re-adjustment as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority, as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India, should be grouped to constitute independent states, in which the constitutional units shall be autonomous and sovereign.

2 Safeguard should be provided in the constitution for minorities in these units and regions for the protection of their religions, cultural, economic, political, and administrative and other rights and interests. In the same way safeguard to Muslim should be provided where they are in a minority.

This resolution was moved by Maulvi FazI ul Haq and it was supported by Chaudhary Khalid uz Zaman, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Sir Abdullah Haroon, Begum Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Abdul Hameed Khan, Nawab Muhammad Ismail Khan, Doctor Muhammad Alam and Syed ZakirAli etc.

The Lahore Resolution was a turning point in the Muslim politics of India and gave them a clear cut destination. Miner-e-Pakistan is constructed in Lahore’s Minto Park (Presently lqbal Park) to commemorate the resolution. It is worth-mentioning that the name of Pakistan was proposed by Chaudhary Rehmat All in 1933.

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Reaction on Pakistan Resolution:

A mixed reaction was shown on Pakistan Resolution by different political parties and groups in India.

  1. The Muslims Reaction

The Lahore Resolution contained the demand of a separate independent Muslim State. Wherein opportunities would be created for the Muslims to lead their lives according to their culture, civilization, social values, religious and constitutional conditions.

  1. Reaction of the Hindus

The Hindu press termed it Pakistan Resolution and also compelled the Muslim League to call it Pakistan Resolution. Other Hindu organizations termed the Lahore Resolution, a conspiracy to break the sub-continent into pieces and staged protests. They tried to pressurize the British Government not to accept the demand of the Muslim League.

3. Reaction of the Congress

The Congress was against the Two Nation Theory. Pundit Nehru, Gandhi and Raj Gopal Achaia were at the fore front in this connection. The Congress wanted to see India as an independent state and was against its division. The Congress fully opposed Lahore Resolution.

Reaction of the British Government

The British government did not oppose the Lahore Resolution. The British were worried by the Second World War. They could not bear the opposition of the Muslims openly in the Sub-Continent.

5. Reaction of Ulama

Most of the Ulama along with the Ulama of Deoband opposed the Lahore Resolution and did not agree with the partition of India.

Cripps Mission (1942)

The British Government wanted to get the co-operation of the Indians in order to deal with the war situation. At the beginning of war, they were worried. The Japanese army bombed the coasts of India. The British got success in the war due to the co-operation of the Indians.

For political reconciliation, the British Government sent a mission to India on 22nd March, 1942, which was headed by a cabinet member Sir Stafford Cripps to meet the political parties.

Sir Stafford Cripps held meetings with political leaders and issued a declaration known as Cripps Proposals. The salient features of the proposals were as follows:

1. General elections in the provinces would be arranged soon after the war.

2. India would be given the status of a Dominion.

3. A constitution making body would be elected by the lower houses of all provincial legislatures.

4. The Princely States could also participate in the Legislative Assembly.

5. Any province would be free to join or to opt out of the proposed Dominion. But sixty percent votes of the Provincial Assembly would be essential for such participation.

6. The non-acceding provinces could form their own separate union.

7 The British Government and the constitution making body would enter into a treaty covering all necessary matters arising out of the complete transfer of power from British to the Indians. This treaty would make provision for the protection of racial and religious minorities.

Cripps announced this plan in March 1942 and appealed to the political parties to accept it. Cripps in his speech told that his proposals were definite and precise. It they were rejected by political parties, there would be no chance to reconsider this matter.

Reaction of the Muslim League

The Muslim League was demanding Independent Muslim state in the Pakistan Resolution while there was no such proposal in Cripps Mission which was in line with the Muslim League Resolution. Therefore, the Muslim League rejected Cripps Proposals. The second important reason was that in these Proposals there was suggestion for a single elected legislative assembly, whereas Muslim League demanded two elected legislative Assemblies. The demand for the separate electorate for the Muslims was not included in these proposals. Since Cripps Proposals had to be accepted or rejected entirely, therefore, the Muslim League rejected these proposals altogether.

Reaction of the Congress

The Congress entirely rejected the Cripps Proposals because the demand of Pakistan was accepted indirectly in these proposals and there was a possibility of partition. The Congress wanted the British to transfer the power to the elected representatives. It was considered a conspiracy against the Indian unity. Army was completely under the control of the British and Minister for Defense was not answerable to the elected representatives. Executive Council was appointed by the Viceroy and it was not answerable to Legislative Council.

Quit India Movement (1942)

After the failure of the Cripps Mission, the Congress launched “Quit India” movement against the British, which shook them. Besides the Congress the Muslim League and other parties also rejected the Cripps Proposals. Cripps returned to Britain on 12th April, and stated the reasons of his failure in the Britain parliament. He did not agree with the Congress demands and termed it harmful to the Indian Minorities. The Congress demonstrated its utmost power to make the creation of Pakistan impossible. They intended that the power would be handed over to the Congress.

According to Quaid-e-Azam, “Quit India Movement” was a conspiracy against the Muslims. He said that the aim of this movement was to make the British believe that there was one power in India and that was the Congress. The Muslim League, in response to the Congress slogan of “Quit India” gave their own slogan of “Divide and Quit”. He said that “Quit India Movement was nothing but to establish the Hindu rule all over India. The Government took stern action against Quit India Movement. Prominent leaders of this Movement including Gandhi were arrested and put in jails. The Movement lost its

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Momentum and failed.

Gandhi —Jinnah Talks (1944)

The gulf between the Congress and the Muslim League was so wide that it seemed impossible to be bridged. The British were getting benefits from these differences. Thoughtful people wished the removal of differences between the two parties. Ultimately Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah held talks to end these differences. Gandhi wrote a letter to Quaid-e-Azam and invited him to a dialogue. Finally, talks began between the two leaders in Bombay on 19th September, 1944 and continued till 24th September. Those negotiations were sometimes held through correspondence and sometimes directly. Gandhi made it clear that he wanted to convince the Quaid to withdraw the demand of Pakistan. The Quaid-e-Azam wrote to him that definition the Muslims and

the Hindus are separate nations. In the light of International law , Mussalmans were a separate nation. India should be divided. It is not only for the welfare of the Muslims, but also for the entire India. Gandhi thought that the division of India was nothing but the ruin of India. He wanted that power might be handed over to the Congress. If the Muslims majority decided separation, they would be given the right to separate from the Indian Federation.

Gandhi-Jinnah negotiations failed. The reason was that the Quaid-e-Azam demanded Pakistan in the light of Lahore Resolution while Gandhi wanted self determination of the Muslim majority parts under Indian federation. Wise people were shocked by the failure of negotiations.

Simla Conference (1945)

When the Congress and the Muslim League did not reach an agreement over constitutional reforms, the Viceroy of India Lord Wavell convened a conference of political parties in Simla in June, 1945. Wavell presented the following proposals:

I. Representation should be given to Important communities in the Viceroy’s Executive Council.

II. The Muslims should be given equal representation along with upper Caste Hindus.

III. All the members of the Council should be Indians except the commander of the armed forces. Now the problem arose as who would be nominated among the Muslims for the Executive Council. The Muslim League thought that the Muslim League was the sole representative party of the whole Indian Muslims and had the right to nominate their representatives. The Congress thought that it was the sole representative of all communities of India and it would represent the Muslims as well. The third point was that the Chief Minister of Punjab Keizer Hayat Khan, was loyal to the British and they wanted to nominate him for the Council.

Failure of the Conference

Whether the All India Muslim League had the right to nominate all the Muslim members to the Executive Council or not? That was the question and nobody was able to answer it. Nobody was ready to withdraw from their stance. The Qaide-Azam explained his stance and said that only the Muslim League would nominate the Muslims. That was not acceptable to the Congress, Keizer Hayat and the British. Therefore, this Conference failed. This failure benefited the Muslim League and the Muslims got rid of the Congress domination in the centre.

General Elections (1945-46)

In Britain, The Labor Party, formed government as a result of its victory in the elections. It was the manifesto of that party that independence would be given to India. The Prime Minister, Lord Attlee, declared that general elections would be held and a Legislative and Executive Councils would be formed in the country. Along with the demand of the Muslim League for the creation of Pakistan, the demand of the Congress for independence of India was not heeded. Both the parties decided to take part in the elections. The Muslim League took part in the elections to prove that it was the representative party of the entire Muslims of India and the achievement of Pakistan was its goal. On the other hand, the Congress claimed that it was the sole representative party of all Indians and India would be a natural unit which could never be divided. Those elections were a challenge because programmers of both the parties were not only different but also contrary to each other.

Federal Elections

In December, 1945, elections for the Central Legislative Assembly were held. The Muslims grabbed all thirty seats in the Central Legislative which were allocated to them. In this way, the Muslim League proved that it was the sole representative party of the Muslims of India.

Provincial Elections

Elections for the provincial assemblies were held in February, 1946. The Muslim League won more seats than it has expectations. There were 495 seats for the Muslims in the provinces and the Muslim League got 439 seats. In this way the Muslim League got 89% seats. Results of the provincial elections are as follows:

Name of province

Total Reserved seats for the Muslim

Seats obtained by the Muslim League

Bengal

119

113

Sindh

35

35

NWFP

38

17

Punjab

86

79

Orissa

4

4

Bihar

40

34

Bombay

30

30

UP

66

54

CP

14

13

Assam

34

31

Madras

29

29

The results of provincial and central legislative Assemblies were a boost for the Muslim League. Now in future politics, the Muslims could not be underestimated and the achievement of Pakistan had become a reality for the League. After elections, the Quaid-e-Azam convened the Muslim League elected members convention at Delhi. Oath was taken by all the members that they would try their utmost for the creation of Pakistan.

Cabinet Mission Plan and Interim Government (1946) Historical background of the Cabinet Mission Plan:

To bring about political reforms for the future, it was essential to bring the Muslim League and the Congress on one platform, although their ways were different. But it was essential to have a political agreement between the two parties.

For this purpose, the British Government sent three cabinet ministers to India. This mission consisted of Sir Stafford Cripps, Lord Patrick Lawrence and A.V Alexander. This mission arrived at India on March 24, 1946, and discussed the issue with the Viceroy. Delegation met with provincial Governors, Chief Ministers, elected members of the Assembly and members of the Executive Council. No one agreed to the division of the sub-continent. Later on, the mission met the Congress leaders Abul Kalam Azad and Mahatma Gandhi to get their opinion and met the Quaid-e-Azam too. There was difference of opinion between the two parties; therefore, the mission invited four members from each party for negotiation.

word image 51 Quaid-e-Azam, Muhammad Ismail Khan, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishter and Liaqat Ali Khan participated on behalf of the Patel and Khan Abul Gaffer Khan participated on behalf of the Congress. The conference continued from 5th to 12th May, but the talks failed. However, the Cabinet Mission presented a Scheme known as the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Main Features of the Cabinet Mission Plan

1. The provinces would be divided into following three groups:

Group A: Hindu majority group: Madras, Bombay, Bihar, And Orissa, UP and CP.

Group B: The Western Muslim majority group Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan.

Group C: The Eastern Muslim majority group Bengal and Assam.

2. Federation

On top of all the three groups, there would be an All India Union which would control, defense, communications and foreign affairs. The Central government would have the power to control the financial matters of the Federal departments. All the residuary powers would be left to the provinces.

3. Legislative Assembly

There would be a Constituent Assembly elected by the members of the Provincial Assemblies. For the purpose of electing a Constituent Assembly, each province would be allotted seats proportional to its population. In its first session, the three groups would draw up the constitution for their own provinces and then formulate a constitution for its own group. Any group of a province will have the option to join any other group.

4. Community

Every province will have three communities i.e. Mussalmans, Sikh and general (non Muslim and non Sikh). Each community would be empowered for electing its own representatives in proportion to its population.

5. Tax

The central and provincial governments would be empowered to impose taxes in order to raise finances to meet its expenses.

6. The Viceroy’s Council

The Viceroy Executive Council would be reconstituted. The council would include the representatives of the major political parties.

7. Interim Government: In the Cabinet Mission, immense importance was attached to the setting up of an interim government having the support of the major political parties. There would be fourteen ministers in the centre, six from the Congress, five from the Muslim League, one from the Sikhs, one from the Christians and one would be from the Parses. It was declared that the party which accepted this plan would be included in the Interim Government. 8. All the three groups would draw up constitution for its own province and would be independent.

Reaction of the Congress to the Cabinet Mission plan

The Congress showed positive reaction to this plan and accepted it partially because there was no direct acceptance of Pakistan in it. The Congress refused to join the interim Government. The Congress opposed provincial groups and emphasized the establishment of a Central Government. It demanded that the provinces should not be given the right to join other groups. Cripps rejected the Congress demands.

Reaction of the Muslim League

The Quaid-e-Azam severely criticized the Cabinet Mission Plan because the demand of Pakistan was not directly accepted in it. The Muslim League reiterated its demand of the formation of Pakistan but at the same time accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan. There were two reasons for this acceptance. Firstly, the Muslim League wanted peaceful solution of the Hindu-Muslim problem. Secondly, the compulsory grouping of the provinces would result in the establishment of Pakistan. The decision of the Muslim League was not only a surprise for the Congress leaders but also some members of the Muslim League as well. However, the Viceroy Lord Wavell, did not invite the Muslim League to join the interim Government despite its acceptance of Cabinet Mission Plan. As a result, the Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan in its meeting held at Bombay and passed a resolution of Direct Action against the government. Later on, the Muslim League joined the Interim Government.

Interim Government

Negotiations for the formation of Interim Government proved difficult beyond expectations. The Congress refused to accept the Viceroy’s proposal to include the Muslim League in the Interim Government. The Congress was not ready to include the Muslim League in the Interim Government on equal basis. While the Muslims League did not have any objection to get less number of seats as compared to those of the Congress.

The Viceroy proposed twelve seats of government five for the Congress, five for the the Muslim League, one for the Sikhs and one for the Christians. The Congress demanded that one seat of the Muslim League should be given back to the Congress. The Viceroy again proposed that there would be 13 seats six for the Congress, five for the Muslim League and two representatives for the minorities. The Congress did not agree to this proposal too. The Viceroy prepared the list of 14 ministers of his own, which included the name of the Quaid-e-Azam who refused to join. The Viceroy also declared that it was the intention of the government to proceed with the formation of the Interim Government even if any of the two major parties refused to join it.

It is said that a secret agreement was reached between Gandhi, Patel and Cabinet Mission that if the Congress refused to join the Interim Government, the Muslim League would not be invited to join the government alone. The Congress refused to join the Interim government but accepted the long term plan of the Cabinet Mission about constitution making.

word image 52 The Muslim League immediately. Decided to join the Interim Government. But the government did not invite the Muslim League to do so. The Muslim League did not join the government and decided to take Direct Action. The Congress immediately declared to join the government. The Viceroy gave invitation to the Muslim League to join the

Government which the Muslim League accepted in the larger interest of the Muslims of India. The Muslim League assumed the charge of Finance Ministry. The success to run other departments depended on the Finance Department Liaqat All Khan was appointed as the Central Finance Minster.

The congress leaders were unhappy on this nomination the Congress was convinced that under the circumstances it was impossible to form an alliance between the Muslim League and the

Congress in the centre. Liaqat Ali Khan ran this department ver. successfully with the consultation of Chuddy Muhammad Ali.

The London Conference and its Implications (December, 1946)

Communal violence in India made it impossible that the Muslim League and the Congress could work together. Muhammad Ali Jinnah declared on 14th November, 1946 that these riots and communal violence would continue until the demand of the formation of Pakistan was accepted. The Muslim League offered its members for attending the Legislative Assembly and directed them to meet on 9th December, 1946. It gave them the impression that if the Indian nationalities did not take part in such a Constituent Assembly where-from India could get independence, then the right of self-determination and independence would be impossible.

The British realised this critical situation. The British invited both the parties and held a conference to find out a practical formula but their efforts did not prove fruitful. The possibilities of unity between both the parties worsened.

The stern attitude of the Muslim League proved that it had clear and only one destination i.e. the formation of Pakistan. The Congress and the Muslim League realised that there was no other choice except yielding to the demand of Pakistan. Therefore, the British government was forced to accept this demand.

3rd June Plan (1947)

word image 53 The British Prime Minister, Mr. Attlee, declared that the British government wished to transfer the power to the Indians not later than June, 1948.

Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the Viceroy of India. He reached on 22nd March, 1947. He was given the responsibility by the British government to prepare a plan for the division of the sub-continent. Mountbatten met the Congress leaders Mr. Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru and Sardar Patel. He also met the provincial Governors and the Quaid-e-Azam as well. Mr. V.P

Mr. Attlee, the British Prime Minister had announced on 20th February, 1947 that the British Government intended to hand over power to the Indian representatives by the end of June, 1948. But in his announcement on the 4th of June in a press conference, he declared that the British government would cease by 15th August, 1947.

Reaction to 3rd June Plan

3rd June Plan was announced after consultation with the Muslim League and the Congress leadership. Though both the parties were not agreed to some parts of this plan, but they were well aware of the fact that the British could refuse the transfer of power if they rejected the plan. The Viceroy requested the Qaide-Azam to accept the plan. He said, “I am personally agreed to the plan but the final decision would be taken by the Muslim League Working Committee.” Therefore, on 10th of June 1947 the Working Committee authorized Mr. Jinnah and ultimately accepted the plan in a written statement. The Congress committee was forced to accept the plan in its meeting held on 14th June. After the approval of both the parties, the British Parliament passed the “Indian Independence Act” on 18th July, 1947.

Indian Independence Act (1947)

To affect the plan of 3rd June, the British Parliament passed an Act known as the Indian Independence Act 1947″. The main features of the Act were as follows.

1. There would be an end to British rule over India on 15th August, 1947 and India would be divided into two Independent and sovereign states.

2. The Constitutional Assembly of each country would frame its constitution. Menon, the advisor to the Viceroy, prepared the partition scheme in the light of these meetings, which was approved by the British Cabinet.

This plan was declared on the 3rd of June and is known as 3rd June Plan. The main features of the plan were as follows:

1. The existing Constitutional Assembly would continue to complete its work but the constitution would be applicable to those parts which approved of it.

2. In case the Muslim majority areas decided to establish an independent state then each of the Bengal and Punjab Muslims majority districts would decide which ever of the two Constituent Assemblies (India or Pakistan) it liked, if any of the two parts of provincial assembly decided in favour of the partition, the division would accordingly take place.

3. If the Muslim majority would be unwilling to participate in the existing constituent Assembly, they would be entitled to convene a separate constituent assembly of their own.

4 A commission for each of the two provinces was to be set up by the Viceroy to demarcate the boundaries in the Punjab and the Bengal after ascertaining the majority areas of the Muslims and non Muslims.

A referendum was to be held in the Frontier province to ascertain the will of the majority people regarding the Constituent Assembly whether they would like to join Pakistan or India.

6. Baluchistan would also be given an opportunity to decide which constituent assembly it would like to join.

7 A referendum was also to be held in the district of Sylhet to determine which constituent assembly it would like to join.

8. Negotiations will have to be initiated on the administration in case of partition.

9. The Indian States would act according to the Cabinet Mission Plan.

3. Till the constitutions were framed the India Act of 1935 would remain enforced subject to necessary modification.

4. Princely States shall be free to negotiate with both the countries according to the wishes of their people. The accords of the British Government with the Princely States shall come to an end after 15th August, 1947.

5. The portfolio of the Secretary of State was abolished. Under this Act, Pakistan came into being on 14th August, 1947 and India on 15th August 1947.

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Events from 3rd June to the creation of Pakistan

After the 3rd June plan polls were held in Punjab Assembly to ascertain the division of Punjab. The division of Punjab was decided. Muslim majority Punjab (west Punjab) joined Pakistan whereas Sikh majority (East Punjab) decided to join India. In the same way polls were held in Bengal Assembly. The East Bengal joined Pakistan whereas the West Bengal decided to join India. The Sindh legislative Assembly met on 26th June and decided by 30 votes to 20 to join Pakistan. In Frontier, it was decided through a referendum to join Pakistan. In Frontier Khudai Khidmatgar said that the people should have a third choice i.e. to vote for an independent state in the light of Bannu Resolution. The British did not accept the demand and Khudai Khidmatgar boycotted the referendum. In Baluchistan, Shahi Jirga and members of Quetta Municipality decided to join Pakistan.

Two Boundary Commissions were set up for the division of Bengal and Punjab under the Chairmanship of Sir Cyril Radcliffe. The commissions worked with unjustly during the division and the Muslim League was forced to accept the decision. In this way, provinces were divided. The Quaid-e-Azam convened the meeting of central assembly members of Pakistan held on 10th August, 1947. During the meeting, Quaid-e-Azam delivered an important speech, Rhout Pakistan and the rights of the minorities.

Role of the Quaid-e-Azam in the making of Pakistan

word image 55 The Quaid-e-Azam took part in the politics of the sub-continent on regular basis since 1906.He was elected member of the Legislative Council for the Muslim constituency in 1910 at Bombay. In the beginning, he was an active member of the Congress. He joined the All India Muslim League in 1913. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad All Jinnah remained member of the Congress and the Muslim League simultaneously. Due to his efforts, the Congress and the Muslim League joint session was held in 1915 at Bombay. In 1916, “Luck now Pact” was signed between the two parties. This unity was the result of the Quaid-e-Azam’s efforts. As a Muslim League leader, he achieved Pakistan and became its first Governor General.

The creation of Pakistan was the result of the continuous efforts, unique talent and selfless services of M.A. Jinnah. The following are his achievements:

1. Luck now Pact

Jinnah thought that the British were the common foe of both the Muslims and the Hindus. He wished that the Congress and the Muslim League should fight side by side against the British. Luck now Pact took place in 1916 due to the selfless efforts of Quaid-e-Azam. For the first time, the Congress recognized the right of a separate electorate.

2. Fourteen Points

The British demanded proposals from the political parties of India to introduce political reforms in the sub-continent, and ironically said that the Indian political parties were not capable to draw a constitution. Responding to this, All Parties Conference presented its proposals in the shape of Nehru Report. The Quaid-e-Azam presented his fourteen points in reaction to Nehru Report because it was not in line with the Luck now Pact. Fourteen Points were a historical document. These points expanded and took practical shape and led to the formation of Pakistan.

3. Round Table Conferences

A meeting of the all political parties was convened in Britain for the future political reforms of India. These Conferences were held on the invitation of the British from 1930 till 1932. In these Conferences, the Quaid-e-Azam protected the interests of the Indian Muslims and presented positive proposals to resolve the constitutional problems. He guided the Indian Muslims sincerely and made the British government aware of the political rights of the Indian Muslims.

4. The Muslim League Leadership

On the invitation of Allama lqbal, Quaid-e-Azarn came back from England and assumed the leadership of the Muslim League. He worked hard and organised the Muslim League. He established the Muslim League branches across the country, and truly made it a dynamic and active party. Quaid-e-Azam infused the Muslim League with a new life. Quaid-e-Azam re-organized the Muslim League in such a way that during the election of 1946 it won all the reserved seats for the Muslims. After the formation of Pakistan, the Quaid-e-Azam reorganized the Pakistan Muslim League in December, 1947.

Careful Reaction to Constitutional Issues Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a farsighted leader. He made careful reaction to the British constitutional reforms i.e Cripps Mission, Cabinet Mission, Government of India Act 1935 and 3rd June Plan etc. He always kept the interests of the Muslim in his mind.

A historical meeting was held at Minto Park in which Pakistan Resolution was passed. An independent Muslim state was proposed in it. Under his enthusiastic leadership and selfless guidance the destiny of Pakistan was achieved successfully.

Role of Minorities in the Creation of Pakistan

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a tolerant political leader. Therefore, non-Muslims also participated in Pakistan Movement. His thoughts impressed the Hindus, Sikhs, Parses, and Christians etc. These people were living in those areas where Pakistan was to be created. The most prominent figure in the vanguard of Pakistan Movement was Jogindar Nath Mandal who belonged to Bengal. Mandal always represented the Hindus in Pakistan and stood with the formation of Pakistan. He is one of the founders of Pakistan. When Pakistan came into being, he was appointed Law and justice minister for his endeavors and sincerity to Pakistan. The session of Pakistan’s first Constituent Assembly was held on 10th August, 1947. It was presided over by Jogindar Nath. When the Muslim League decided to join Interim Government on 25th October, 1946, he was nominated Minister of Law among five central ministers.

Besides Hindus, the Christians also stood side by side with Quaid-e-Azam. The Christian leaders Sir Victor Turn and Robert Cornelius were among trustful companions of Quaid-e-Azam. The Christians took part in Pakistan Movement under his leadership. Cornelius was highly educated and experienced. After independence, he took the responsibility of economic and monetary policy of the country. He was not an ordinary leader of the Christians. He was appointed Advisor for tax and economic affairs in the government of Liaqat Ali Khan. In recognition of his distinguished services, Quaid-e-Azam made him Chief Justice of Lahore bench and he was appointed as the secretary of law by LiaqatAli Khan.

word image 56 The Hindu, Sikh, Christian and Paris communities not only took part in the creation of Pakistan but also played an important role in the development and prosperity of Pakistan. That is why one-fourth white portion of our national flag represents the minorities.

1. Fill in the Blanks.

I. Apart from the Congress and the Muslim League, other parties also rejected proposals.

ii. Elections for the was held in February, 1946.

  1. The Muslim League got departments in the Interim Government.

iv. On 15- August, 1947 got independence.

  1. After the creation of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam the Muslim League in December, 1947.

2. Mark correct or incorrect statements.

I. the Chief Minister called the Lion of Bengal, Maulvi FazI ul, Haq presented Lahore Resolution.

Correct Incorrect

ii. The Muslim League rejected the Cripps Proposals.

Correct Incorrect

iii. In December, 1945 the central elections were held.

Correct Incorrect

iv. The Cabinet Mission arrived India on 24th March, 1946.

Correct Incorrect

v. It is said that, Gandhi, Patel and the Cabinet Mission were in secret agreement.

Correct Incorrect

vi. The Congress accepted the importance of the Muslim League in the Lucknow Pact.

Correct Incorrect

vii. In Frontier, it was decided to join Pakistan through a referendum.

Correct Incorrect

  1. Match the columns

Column A Column B

Plebiscite Seats

Royal Mission

Legislative Powers

Administrative Assembly

Concurrent Referendum

Reserved Jirga

Cabinet List

4. Give brief answers to these questions.

i. What was the main purpose of the Lahore Resolution?

ii. Why did the Quaid-e-Azam not participate in “Quit India Movement”?

iii. What responsibility was assigned over to Lord Mountbatten by the British government?

iv. What did the people of Frontier decide regarding the division of India”?

  1. Write a few names of minority leaders who participated in Pakistan Movement.

5. Write detailed answers to the following questions.

i. Write key points of the Quaid-e-Azam’s address in the Lahore Resolution (Pakistan Resolution)

ii. Explain prominent features of Cripps Proposals and the Indian reaction to them?

iii. Describe the key points of Simla Conference and the causes of its failure.

iv. Explain provincial grouping of the Cabinet Mission Plan and the Indian reaction to it.

v. Explain key points of the 3rd June Plan, of 1947.

vi. Explain salient features of Indian Independence Act of 1947.

word image 57

Arrange a speech competition on “The role of Quaid-e-Azarn.”

Draw a chart of prominent figures and their achievements from this chapter.

Draw a chart from this chapter about important dates and its importance. Complete it in the class

word image 58

Act: a law made by a legislative body.

Administration: To manage the affairs of people, care of people.

Administrative or Executive Council: A group of (ministers) with the Governor General or the Viceroy to help him in running the affairs of the state.

Adult Franchise: Election system in which every adult citizen has the right to vote.

Annulment: Cancellation, finish

Archaeology: signs or remnant of ancient time. Arya Samaj: Pure Hindu system/society. Assembly: Law making institution, legislature.

Bible: Gospel: Heavenly book revealed to Jesus Christ. Brahma Samaj: Pure Brahma, Upper Caste Hindu System.

Khilafat: The Muslims government in Turkey since the begin of 1517 and ended in 1924.

Chief Commissioner: Head of the commissioner system. Christian: The followers of Christ.

Civil Disobedience: People who do not obey the government orders.

Civilization: The human activities which create comfort and facilities in human life.

Colonization: A system in which powerful nations settled in weaker nations, occupy and rule them.

Commission: Committee consisting of professionals who submit opinions or recommendations to the government on a particular issue.

Commissioner: The administrative part of any province, which consists of several districts.

Common issues: Those powers used by centre and province simultaneously.

Communal: Relating to communities.

Communication: The source or material from which a message or goods are sent from one place to another.

Confiscation: Property withheld by others or by government as a punishment.

Constitution: Those rules and regulations by which a country runs.

Coronation: To wear the crown on the head of Queen or King. Crown: King or Queen of England.

Cultural Influence: The people of a country, group or nation passing through the other people cultural values, country or group.

word image 59Cultural Heritage: Remains of ancestors.

Culture: The customs and ideas of particular people.

Darul Uloom: The organization from which knowledge is obtained.

word image 60Delegation: An authorized group or organization which are sent with proposals and recommendations.

Direct: Do not need the third party.

Economy: The economic situation in a country. Election: Selection by vote.

Enlightened: Made bright

Expansion: the desire to spread or occupy the area of other countries.

Explain: Interpret

Exploit: A compulsion to take advantage of individualism to continue his personal status.

Extremist: A group who uses extreme source to get its objectives.

Fatwa: Any decree of Ulama in the light of Shari at.

Federal: The system in which country is divided into provinces and provinces have their constitutional powers.

Foreign: of relation with other countries.

Higher Secondary: In lido-Pakistan grade between 10th and degree, Inter.

Hindu Raj: Complete rule of the Hindus.

Imperial Council: Royal Council

Income Tax: Whoever earns the money on his income and it exceeds a certain limit, and pays to government.

Indirect: Third thing or source is needed.

Interim: Temporary, Temporary until the establishment of permanent system is arranged.

Judge: A person related to judiciary who gives the verdicts in the light of law.

111111111E11111

Lower House: In Bicameral system, a house elected by public vote system such as Pakistan’s National Assembly.

Manifesto: Programmed of any political party, promises made with the people consultation.

Minority: that religious, political or linguistic and racial group which is not in majority such as the Hindus in Pakistan and the Muslims and Sikhs are in India etc.

Missionary: Working with a religious passion to achieve special purposes.

Mixed Elections: That mode of election in which every person vote to a person having any religion or creed

Moderate: Which have not more strict and not more relaxed attitude

Movement: The struggle of the people for the support or oppose of anything.

Nation: Those people having common religions, race, language, traditions, costums and other characteristic and are trying to get state.

Nationality: those people having common religion, race, language, habits, customs and other characteristics. They do not have state and nor they try to get state.

Native: Those things which produce or belong to a homeland. Nomination: suggest some one for a job.

Non co-operation: Not co-operating.

Non-Violence: Peaceful manner, hate violence.

Pact: Contract, accord, agreement. Parliament: Legislative organization.

Parliamentary: A system in which Prime Minister is the head of executive and legislature and where parliament or legislature is supreme.

Philosophy: Rational knowledge, thinking to know the truth.

Political thinker: A person who submitted indeas for the solutions of political problems, such as Plato and Allama lqbal.

Preachers: Those who preach or publish any religion, faith or ideology.

Princely States: Small or large autonomous states in India such as Kashmir, Jamnagar etc.

Professional: Related to professions, particular type of career.

Protest Rally: From any law, order or system of the government expressed disapproval by a procession against the system.

Province: Political unit of a country.

Provincial prejudice: Preference of the province to other provinces

Queen: A Female ruler, King’s wife

Reaction: In response to a theory, law, judgment, or degree, expressing one’s thoughts or comments.

Recommendations: Proposals to competent authority that can be something in favour or against.

Reform: Positive change in law, system and object. Reformer: A person who leads the people to right path.

Residuary Powers: Those powers which are not in written form during central and provincial distribution.

Resolution: A Joint opinion of any gathering to the competent authority.

Revival: A lost ideology, beliefs or principles etc to be drawn back to life, restore original format.

Revolution: Complete change of system by peaceful or violinist means according to people’s desires, to change the system altogether.

Royal Army: British Army official, Imperial Army.

Sanskrit: The ancient Indian language.

Secondary: In education grade between middle and higher secondary education, (Metric).

Secretary of State: In British Parliament minister for Indian affairs.

Sectarianism: Linguistic or ethnic group formed on the biases of strict and different styles.

Secular: A political system in which there is no interference of religion.

Separate electorate: A type of election in which the race and religion of a people vote a person having the same religion and race i.e. Mussalmans vote Mussalmans candidate and Hindu vote Hindu candidate.

Sermon: Important speech or address.

Social Transformation: Change in human behaviors, habits and traditions.

Social: of a society, relate to work together.

Sovereign: King

Sovereignty: Freedom, Supreme Power, own wishes Strategy: Policy

Sub-continent: The land consisted of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh

Subjects: People under the domination of King or Queen. Subordination: who are being governed or issued orders to.

Tax: Pay to government on set rate.

Terrorist: A group of people who spread terror to obtain their objectives.

UK (England): A country of Europe which is also called Britain or United Kingdom.

Unicameral legislative: A house contains a singal legislative body i.e Iran Islamic Assembly

University: Institute of Higher Education.

Violence: Murder, blunder and exploit, the opposite of peace.

Violent: The work in which cruelty, bloodshed, looting and murders are involved.

Welfare: Human services, prosperous.

Bibliography

1. History of Indo-Pakistan, Main Abdul Hameed Educational institution, Urdu Bazaar Lahore

2. A History of indo-Pak, Prof K. All and Mrs. Azra Ali

3. Pakistan Studies Dr Naushad Khan, Islamia College Peshawar.

4. Pakistan Affairs. Ehsan ullah Saqib, Dodger Sons, Lahore.

5. Pakistan Studies, Prof; Guayas Ahmad, lqra Bil Agency, Qissa Khawani Bazar Peshawar.

6. Pakistan’s Past and Present, Prof Bakhtaran, Arched Publisher Swabi.

7. Pakistan Movement, Sikander Hayat, NIHCR,

8. Politics and State in Pakistan, M. Waseem, NIHCR,

9. Shahrah Madniat Pakistan, Prof Bakhtaran, Arshad Publisher Swabi.

10. Struggle for Pakistan, I.H Qureshi.

11. Tareekh Pak-o-Hind, Hadayatullah Chaudhary.

12. Encyclopedia Encarta 2012.

13. A Short History of KPK, Prof Bakhtaran, Arshad Publisher Swabi.

About the Authors

The author of this book Professor Bakhtaran belongs to Swabi. He did M.A Political Science from University of Peshawar in first position. He did M.A. History as a private candidate from the same university. He is the Head of the Political Science Department in the Post Graduate College Swabi.

He has written many books for Textbook Board. He is the author of many books in political science, international relations, civics, ethics and history etc.

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