Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 4 Quest for Political Settlement
Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 4 Quest for Political Settlement. Three years ago, on May 6, 2018, I barely survived an assassination attempt in my life as the country’s interior minister. Although my gunshot wounds have healed in the last three years, the wounds inflicted on Pakistan by the politics based on hatred and violence and the resulting disorder of the last decades are so deep that they are not likely to heal anytime soon, at least. Less than us as a state and society proactively corrects the course.Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 4 Quest for Political Settlement.
Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 4 Quest for Political Settlement. The political, social and economic crises are symptoms of the underlying problem: the weakening of the social contract between state and society in Pakistan. Whenever the state fails to fulfill its promised duties and responsibilities and compromises its impartiality and political neutrality, it opens up space for disgruntled elements and Pakistan’s adversaries to exploit our failings.Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 4 Quest for Political Settlement.
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Students will be able to:
• Discuss the Delhi Muslim Proposals in terms of a viable formula of Hind-Muslim settlement.
• Describe the formation of the Simon Commission (1927), and the Indian response.
• Delineate the major provisions of the Nehru Report with special reference to Muslim aspirations and demands.
• Identify the Muslim response to the Nehru Report: All Parties Muslim Conference (1929) and Jinnah’s 14 Points (1929).
• Discuss lqbal’s proposal for a consolidated North-Western Muslim State and redistribution of provinces as a solution to the Hindu-Muslim problem in India.
• Narrate the events leading to the convening of the Round Table Conferences to arrive at a constitutional settlement between Great Britain and India, between the Indian political parties and the Indian Princely States.
• Discuss the course of the RTC and the proposals put forward by various Indian parties, with special reference to the rights of minorities.
• Trace back the demand for the introduction of reforms in the NWFP and Baluchistan.
• Trace back the demand for the separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency.
• Highlight the salient features of the Communal Award with reference to Muslim demands.
• Point out the salient features of 1935 Act and the grant of autonomy to the provinces.
• Delineate the status of the AIML in Muslim politics during the previous decade (1926-36)
• Discuss the 1937 elections, the emergence of separate provincial Muslim parties and the election results in terms of party politics.
• Describe the efforts for the reorganization of the Muslim League as a representative organization of Indian Muslims.
• Discuss the formation of Congress Ministries in the Hindu majority provinces, the Azad¬. Khaliq-uzZaman parleys for coalition with congress in the U.P. and the subsequent Congress policies towards the Muslims.
• Elaborate the specific Muslim grievances against the Congress Rule with special reference to the Piper Report, Sharif Report and the Kamal Yar Jang Report. Include also the Congress response, and Jinnah’s demand for Royal Commission.
• Analyze the impact of World War-II on Indian politics and its implication in enhancing AIML’s stature as Muslim India’s spokesman.
Delhi Muslim Proposals (1927)
From the beginning the Quaid-e-Azam wished that the British rule should come to an end through the Hindu-Muslim unity. Luck now Pact was made through his efforts. During central budget debate in the Legislative Assembly in1927, the Congress leadership especially Pundat Jawahar Lai Nehru met Quaid-e-Azam and proposed that Congress would accept all other demands if the Muslim withdrew their demand of separate electorate. The All India Muslim League’s meeting was held in Delhi on 20th March, 1927, under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. He presented a set of proposals called Delhi Proposals. It was said in these proposals that the Muslim League could surrender its demand of separate electorate if:
1. Reforms were introduced in North-West Frontier Province (KP) and in Baluchistan on the same lines as in other provinces.
2. Sindh should be separated from Bombay.
3. The Muslims representation in the Central Legislature should be not less than one third.
4. The Muslims should be given representation according to their population in Punjab and Bengal.
These proposals were the best formula for Hindu-Muslim unity, but the Hindu politicians’ reaction was not positive.
Simon Commission and the Indian response:
Simon Commission (1927)
After the Montague-Chelmsford reforms were introduced in 1919, it was decided to send a commission to India after every ten years to examine the effects of the reforms as to what extent the Act 1919 was successful?
And to analyze the political situation of India and make proposals for future
The British Government set up a seven member Commission under Sir John Simon. There was no representation from the Indian side in the Commission. The Indian leaders named the Commission “All White”, as its members were taken from British Parliament. Therefore, the Congress and Muslim League boycotted the Commission. One group of the Muslim League headed by Sir Muhammad Shafi supported the Commission. Aliama lqbal was also among that group. This Commission reached India on February, 1928. The Indians did not give any importance to the Commission. The Indian received the Commission with black flags and slogans “Simon go back”. In spite of the negative behavior of the political parties and public, the Commission visited the whole of India and presented its report in June, 1930. This report consisted of two sections and eight hundred pages. In the first section, Indian problems were mentioned and in the second section, recommendations of the Commission were described.
This Commission presented the following recommendations in its report:
- Diarchy system shall be ended which was introduced in 1919.
ii) Provinces will be given maximum autonomy and the provincial ministers will be answerable to the Assembly.
iii) Central intervention in the provinces will be reduced to ensure provincial autonomy.
iv) Federal system will be introduced.
v) In Centre, bicameral legislature will be established.
Lower house will be elected by the people on the basis of population while in the upper house; every province will send three representatives.
vi) Governor will not interfere in the affairs of the government until the security of the province or the protection of the minority is disturbed.
vii) The N.W.F.P should be given a Legislative Council but it will not be an autonomous province. The question of separating Sindh was to be discussed further.
viii) At the centre, the Federal Assembly will be elected by the provincial legislative assemblies.
Reaction on the Simon Commission
Although the Indians strongly opposed this Commission and termed it a joke yet the governments made this report a base and introduced the Indian Act of 1935 that lasted till the independence of 1947. The Congress started the Disobedience Movement against the government.
There were massive demonstrations against the government and the government banned the Congress. Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru were arrested. The Muslim league remained neutral. Meanwhile, the Labor Party came to power and announced that this report was not a final word for the Indian constitution and the Indian constitutional problems would be resolved in the Round Table Conferences in consultation with their leadership.
Nehru Report (1928)
When the recommendations of the Simon commission were rejected by the Indians public, a British Minister Lord Birkenhead passed insulting remarks that the Indian political parties were not able to present any proposals. In this connection, Indian political parties set up a committee in 1928 for the future political constitution of India, which was headed by Pundit Mote Lal Nehru, Congress leader. That is why it was named “Nehru Report”. Shoaib Qureshi and All Imam represented the Muslim League.
1. Separate electorate to be abolished.
2. Hindi should be made National language.
3. The Muslims would enjoy one-fourth representation in the Central Legislature.
4. The Federal cabinet would consist of one-fourth Muslims ministers.
5. There would be a federal parliamentary system with a strong centre.
6. N.W.F.P and Baluchistan would be given the status of provinces.
7 Sindh should be separated from Bombay and given the status of a province.
8. Representative and accountable governments should be formed at federal and provincial levels in India.
9. General elections should be held on the basis of adult franchise.
Nehru Report’s recommendations were presented in All Parties Conference in August, 1928 at Luck now. An amendment regarding Sindh was made in this session that “Sindh should be given the status of province only, if it can sustain its financial burden in case of separation from Bombay. The minorities should be given some representation in Sindh on the lines Muslims enjoyed in the Hindu majority provinces”
The flash point of this report was that the Congress violated Luck now Pact i.e. separate electorate and in Federal Legislature the Muslims representation of 25 `)/0 instead of 33 %. Both th0 sections of the Muslim League rejected it. Reacting to this report Maulana Shaukat Ali said these words, “Mote Lal has brown hunting dogs. He did not even see the bad behavior of the dog with dears, just like the Hindus proposed against the Muslims.” Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar said, “This report will establish supremacy of the Hindus over the Indian Muslims.” In response, Quaid-e-Azam presented his famous fourteen points.
Jinnah’s fourteen points (1929)
The report which was presented by Nehru for the future constitution of India, was rejected by the Muslim League. The Quaid-e-Azam, convened the Muslim League meeting in Delhi on 25th, March, 1929. In the meeting, a resolution was tabled from Jinnah’s side which was passed unanimously. It was said that no scheme of the future government of India would be acceptable until and unless the following principles were incorporated:
1. The form of future constitution should be federal with residuary powers vested in the provinces.
2. A uniform measure of autonomy should be granted to all provinces.
3. Minorities should be given representation in the legislatures according to their proportion.
4. Separate electorate should be adopted. A community by its own will can abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.
5. In the Central Legislature, Muslims representation shall not be less than one-third.
6. No cabinet either central or provincial should be formed without their being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers.
7. Sindh should be separated from Bombay.
8. Reforms should be introduced in North-West Frontier Province (KP) and Baluchistan.
9. Muslim civilization and culture should be safeguarded.
10. In Muslim majority provinces, any territorial redistribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority.
11. All communities would enjoy full religious liberty.
12. Muslims should be given adequate share in State, services.
13. No constitution of Central Legislature would be applicable regarding the minorities until 75% majority of that minority approved of it.
14. No amendment in the constitution should be made without the consent of all provinces.
Allama lqbal’s Address at Allahabad (1930)
The Annual session of the Muslim League was held at Allahabad on 30th December 1930, which was presided over by Allama lqbal. In this session, he delivered his historical speech, in which Sir Syed’s Two Nation Theory was explained and the idea of Pakistan was presented.
Allama lqbal, in his address, said that Islam is not only a set of beliefs and rituals or mere its verbal recognition, rather it is a religion which
Gives its followers the idea of a political system. He said that the Muslims have their own cultural traditions, their own mode of life, their own history and civilization. All these elements proved that the Muslims were a different nation from the Hindus. The Hindus always dreamt to rule over the Muslims due to their numerical predominance. Allama lqbal said that unless and until the Muslims were recognized as a nation under a federal system and the Muslim majority units given the same privileges as were given to the Hindu units, political harmony would not exist. It was the only way in which both the Hindus and the Muslims could prosper in accordance with their respective cultural values.
Allama lqbal in his presidential address proposed a permanent solution to the Muslim problem. He said that the Western Punjab, Frontier, Baluchistan and Sindh should be combined to form one province. Thus, quite a large Muslim province would come into being. In this province, the Muslims would live according to their religion and culture and would not insist on their separate electorate. This is the only way to do away with the communal riots in the sub-continent. In this way, the North West part of the country could take the form of a separate political system.
Importance of Allahabad Address
Allahabad address had a great impact on the political history of India. In this address, for the first time, we see the indication to an independent Muslim State. Pakistan was the vision of a poet and the Quaid made it come true.
The proposal of the formation of North West State in India led to the creation of Pakistan. The Muslims liked the proposal of demarcation of new provinces and made it a central point of their politics. These proposals were permanent solution to the Hindu-Muslim differences.
Round Table Conferences (1930-32)
General Elections were held in Britain in June 1929. As a result, Ramsay Macdonald was elected as Prime Minister. After consultation, he decided to invite all political parties of India for a Round Table Conference in London to introduce constitutional reforms in India. The purpose of this conference was to find out constitutional solution among political parties, Princely States and the British Government.
The First Round Table Conference was held on 12th November, 1930 till 19th January, 1931. All the parties were represented except the Congress. All were agreed to set up a federal system in India. The second important feature was that all the princely states would join the Federation of India.
The Second Round Table Conference was held from September to December, 1931. Mahatma Gandhi and Allama Muhammad lqbal also participated in it. Gandhi claimed that the Congress should be recognized as the sole representative party of the Indian people and India should be given complete independence. The British did not agree to this demand. Therefore, this Conference failed. Gandhi was arrested on reaching India.
After the failure of this Conference the British Prime Minister announced the “Communal Award” on August 4, 1932 to solve the communal problem in India.
It contained the following important points:
1. Minorities were given the system of separate electorate.
2. The Muslims were given one-third representation in the Central Legislature.
3. The Muslims were given one-fourth share in state services.
4. Special seats were allocated to Sikhs, Christians, Anglo-Indian and low caste Hindus, now called Dalit’s
Communal Award was a gift for the Indian minorities, especially for the Muslims. These complied with the exact demands of the Muslims. The Muslims always presented these demands as constitutional proposals. Ultimately these demands were accepted in the Communal Award.
The Third Round Table Conference started on 17th November, 1932 and lasted till 24th November, 1932. The Congress and the Quaid-e-Azam did not participate in the Conference, therefore, it failed. After the Round Table conferences, the British made a constitution for India which is named as the Government of India Act 1935.
Separation of Sindh from Bombay and Reforms in NWFP and Baluchistan
If we analyses the proposals and demands of the Muslims regarding constitutional reforms, these two demands were always at the top of the list.
1. Reforms should be introduced in North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan.
2. Sindh should be separated from Bombay and should be given the status of a province.
When legal and constitutional evolution started in the history of Indo-Pak, the Muslims presented national demands and proposals. Even the Congress recognized these demands on certain occasions. The basic reason for these demands was that the North-West Frontier (Present Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Province was not a separate province at that time, rather a part of Punjab and later on, it was made Chief Commissioner’s Province. The Muslims were demanding constitutional reforms, because they were in majority and if it was to be given the status of a province, it would emerge as a Muslim majority province. Baluchistan was also a Muslim majority territory. If reforms were introduced, then a Muslim province would to be having come into existence. But it was a pity that after the formation of Pakistan, our own government did not give it the status of province and was under the control of Sindh province till 1970. By separating Sindh from Bombay, a new province would come into existence. Therefore, these demands were always a part of the Muslim constitutional proposals.
The Government of India Act-1935:
This Act was the result of the continuous struggle of the British government for that had tried to keep in view the interests of different nationalities and to give them an acceptable constitution. To create favorable conditions for drafting this constitution, the Simon Commission and Round Table Conferences provided great assistance. During the preparation of this constitution, Nehru Report and Quaid-e-Azam’s Fourteen Points were also taken into consideration.
Following are the main features of the Act of 1935.
1. Federal Constitution
i. Federal Part: Part 1 belonged to Federation. It
was said that Indian federation will be composed of Federal Provinces, Commissionaires and Princely States, but the Princely States were given the option whether they voluntarily joined the federation or not.
ii. The provincial part of the constitution came into force only, in which provisions for the provincial autonomy and the formation of responsible governments were given. It abolished diarchy in provinces but introduced it at centre.
2. Territorial Changes
The constitution embraced the following territorial redistributions:
i. Sindh was separated from Bombay and was given the status of a province.
ii. Another new province Orissa was set up.
iii. Reforms were introduced in Frontier Province and it was raised to the status of a fully-fledged province.
iv. Burma was separated from India.
3. Federal Executive
On federal level, diarchy was introduced and in this way the federal executive was composed of “The Governor General” and “The Council of Ministers”.
4. Federal Legislature
In the centre two houses of legislature were proposed. The name of the upper house was “The Council of State” which consisted of 156 members for British India and 104 for Princely States. The representative of the British India was to be elected on population basis. Such members were to be elected by Provincial Assemblies Members of the Princely States were to be nominated by their rulers. Communal representation was provisioned. The normal duration of the Assembly was to five years but it could be cut short by the Governor General.
5. Federal Court
A federal court was to be set up to decide disputes between the Federal Government and provinces. Other courts were abolished.
6. Provincial Part
In some provinces, bicameral legislatures were established. Therefore, lower house was known as “Legislative Assembly” while the upper house was “Legislative Council”. Communities were provided representation and 30 million people were given the right to vote. Governor was the executive of the province and he would nominate ministers from the Assembly members.
This Act had several drawbacks which are as follow: Federal Government enjoyed more powers. The Princely Sates enjoyed nonfederal and undemocratic powers and the provincial Governors had been given discretionary powers. But on the whole the Government of India Act 1935 was better than the previous reforms. The general public did not like it because their promises were not fulfilled for the establishment of responsible and independent government. Commenting on that Act, Quaid-e-Azam termed it basically a defective and unacceptable Act. Rulers of the Indian States also raised objections to it. Federal part of this Act was never implemented.
Provincial Autonomy under the 1935 Act
In this Act, more autonomy was given to the provinces than previous constitution. Powers of the centre were reduced. Legislative Assembly was established in every province. Provinces were given powers of legislation such as law and order, police, judicial system, jail, health and civil service etc. According to this Act, in large provinces two legislative houses were created, Asam, Bengal, Bihar, and Madras were added to these provinces. In small provinces i.e. Frontier, Sindh, Punjab, CP and Orissa a single legislative house was established. In provinces with two house system, the upper house was “Legislative Council” and the lower house was named “Legislative Assembly”. Provincial legislatures were empowered to legislate for the province. The legislation was not to be contrary to the Federal legislation.
An effective parliamentary system was introduced in place of diarchy system. Ministries were created to assist and counsel the provincial governors. Important among these were “Minority communities” were duly represented in ministries. Ministers were chosen from the Assembly and they were answerable to these institutions. Provincial governors were given special powers like that of the Governor-General so that they could manage their special responsibilities.
In this Act there were several problems regarding provincial autonomy i.e more subjects were included in the federal department list. The provinces were to elect Central Assembly members while the rulers of Princely States nominated them, which was an undemocratic way. The Governor’s interference in the name of minority protection was another unconstitutional and undemocratic aspects of the act.
Reorganization of the Muslim League (1936-1939)
The period 1923-1934, can be called an era of hardships and decline for the Muslim League. During the period the Muslim League was divided in two factions. One faction was led by the Quaid-e-Azam, the other one by Sir Muhammad Shafi. The conflict among the two factions of the Muslim League just as the Ulama-e-Hind as well as Hindu extremists proved to be favorable for the British.
The Party of S.M Shafi co-operated & supported the Simon Commission while Jinnah’s League boycotted it. The Quaid-e-Azam tried his level best to unify both the factions but S.M Shafi did not co-operate with him. The result was that differences between the two increased. All suggestions and proposals presented by the Quaid-e-Azam for the welfare of the Muslims were outrightly rejected by S.M Shafi. Under these conditions, the Quaid-e-Azam decided to quit politics. After R.T.C, the Quaid lived in London. Later on, Allama lqbal wrote several letters to Quaid-e-Azam and compelled him to take part in politics once again.
He began to take part in politics once again in 1934, and organized the Muslim league across the country. In April, 1934, he united both the factions of the League and the United League elected Quaid-e-Azam as its president and Hafiz Himayat Hussain its secretary. Later on, the All India Muslim Conference was also merged in the Muslim League. Quaid-e-Azam visited India in 1936 and organized the party. A Parliamentary Board was formed comprising 54 members. The board approved the manifesto of the Muslim League. In October, 1937 a meeting of the Muslim League was held at Luck now and it was a historical meeting in the history of the Muslim League. In this meeting Bengal’s Chief Minister Maulvi Fazal-ul-Haq, Punjab’s Chief Minister Sir Sikander Hayat and Assam’s Chief Minister Sadullah Khan accepted Quaid-e-Azam as their leader. Maulana Mazhar-ud-Din gave Jinnah the title of Quaid-e-Azam in 1937. The annual meeting of Muslim League was held at Patna in 1938, in which Punjab’s Main Faros Din also supported Muhammad Ali Jinnah the title of the Quaid-e-Azam.
The Congress Ministries 1937-1939 harassed the Muslims which led them to join the Muslim League. With the resignation of the Congress Ministries, the Muslims expressed great pleasure and observed the Day of Deliverance on 22nd December, 1939. At that time, the Muslims were well organized at district and village levels across the country.
General Elections (1937)
The provincial part of the Government of India Act 1935 was accepted by both the Muslim League and the Congress. These elections were held in eleven provinces of India from February to March, 1937. According to the elections results, the Congress got majority in some provinces in which Madras, UP (United Provinces), CP (Central Provinces), Bihar and Orissa were included. The Congress formed their governments in these provinces. After a few days, they also got majority in Bombay and NWFP and
Formed their governments. The Congress formed their governments in 8 provinces out of 11. In Punjab, Sir Sikander Hayat’s party and the Congress coalition government was formed. Though the Muslim League got representation in the elections from the minority provinces, yet the Muslims wanted to be 3 part of the government. Negotiations were held between them, but the Congress presented such conditions which were unacceptable. Owing to these conditions, the League ministers were to function.
Under the instructions of the Congress. These conditions were communicated to Chaudhri Khaliquz Zaman by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, a member of the Congress. Main conditions were:
1. The Muslim League group in the UP Legislative Assembly shall be dissolved.
2. Members of the Muslim League in the UP Assembly shall join the Congress and would come under the party discipline.
3. The Muslim League members who joined the Congress shall carryout the instructions issued by the Congress.
4. The Muslim League Parliamentary Board shall be dissolved.
The Muslim League refused to participate in the government. In this way, the Congress Ministries were formed in eight provinces.
Congress Ministries in the provinces and the Muslim’s grievances
1. Bande Matram
Bande Matram was taken from a biased Bengali Nova.’ Islam was targeted in its lyrics. Hindus were instigated’ to come out and expel! The Muslims from India. The Congress Government made it as a national anthem.
2. Congress Flag and Portrait of Gandhi
With the formation of Congress Governments, orders were issued to hoist Congress flag beside British flag. It meant that there were two powers in India i.e. the Congress and the British. Orders were issued to install Gandhi’s portrait in schools and students were made to stand with folded hands in front of Gandhi’s portrait.
3. Muslims Contact Campaign
The Congress started a Muslim contact campaign. The main objective of this campaign was to crush the popularity of the Muslim League among the Muslims. It was Nehru’s imagination to destroy the image of the Muslim League.
4. Hindu-Muslim Riots
Slaughtering of cow was banned during the Congress Government. Eating of beef was prohibited. Pigs would enter in the Masjid and Azan was interrupted. Attempts were made to damage life and property of the Muslims deliberately.
5. Piper Report
The Muslim League set up an eight member committee to investigate the anti-Muslim policy of the Congress Government on 28th March, 1938. It was headed by Raja Syed Muhammad Mandi of Piper. The committee investigated for eight months in eight provinces to find out atrocities committed on Muslims during the Congress Government and presented its report on November, 1938. Its main points were:
1. Minorities did not trust in Congress Ministries.
2. The Congress neglected the legitimate demands of the Muslims.
3. The Congress was putting pressure on Muslim League to accept unconditional obedience.
4. The Congress set up anti-Muslim organizations and supported them.
5. The Congress was busy to dismantle the Muslim unity in an organized way.
6. Sharif Report
In the province of Bihar, the provincial Muslim League formed a committee headed by Mr. Sharif to investigate the unjust proceedings of the Congress. The report of this committee was issued in March, 1939. In this report, the Congress was found involved in the unfair and anti-Muslim activities. The Government tried to create terror in Muslims and local leadership was involved in anti-Muslim activities.
7. Nawab Kamal Yar Jang Bahaclar Report
The session of the All India Muslim Educational Conference was held in Calcutta in 1938. An investigation committee was set up. Nawab Bahadar Yar Jang was the head of the committee. The committee critically analyzed the educational policy of the Congress ministries. A sub-committee headed by Sir Aziz ul Haq visit3d the whole of India and gathered information. The committee in its report severely criticized Wardha Scheme. It was taken from Gandhi philosophy. It emphasized the Hindu nationalism and Non-violence and to create respect in the minds of youth for Hindu religious leaders.
The aim of this scheme was to keep the Muslims away from their culture, religion and civilization. The Muslim leaders were worried if the educational policies prepared and enforced in the light of Wardha Scheme, were implemented they would act as poison for the Muslims. Emphasis was laid on Hindi and Urdu was sidelined. Quaid-e-Azam demanded to form a Royal Commission to investigate anti-Muslims Policies.
End of Congress Rule
The Second World War began in 1939. The British declared war against Germany. The government appealed to all the political parties for assistance in this hour of need. The Congress desired to help the government under the following conditions:
1. The British government should explain the objectives of war.
2. The government should announce that the elected legislative would draft the constitution of India.
3. The members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be those who enjoy the support of Central Assembly.
The government was not ready to accept the demands. However, the Viceroy declared that dominion status would be given to India after the war.
The Congress did not believe the promises of the British Government. The Congress with a view of putting more pressure on the government, refused to extend co-operation. The Congress asked its ministers to tender resignations. In November, 1939, the Congress Ministers resigned from their offices.
The Muslim League was overjoyed at the end of the Congress government. They were relieved from the yoke of the Congress. The Quaid-e-Azam announced to observe the Day of Deliverance on 22nd December, 1939. The Muslim League members offered thanks giving prayers and appealed to observe this day with peace.
World War-II and its Impacts on India
• The World War II began in 1939 and ended with dropping atomic bombs on Japan by U.S.
• In this war Japan was an ally of Germany.
• In this war Japan occupied Singapore, Rangoon and India was waiting for its turn.
• The British Government put forward Cripps Mission’s proposals to resolve political problem of India which were rejected by the Congress and the Muslim League.
• When the Congress started “Quit India Movement” the government arrested the Congress leadership.
• The Muslim League adopted the policy of reconciliation which afforded it an opportunity to gain ground.
• The situation proved that the Muslim League was the only representative party, which paved the way for the formation of Pakistan.
Allied Powers in Second World War
Fill in the Blanks
- The Government established a seven member headed by Sir John Simon.
- The annual meeting of the Muslim League was held at on 30th December, 1930.
- Burma was separated from
- Allama lqbal wrote several letters to and compelled him to re-enter into politics.
- World war ll began in
2. Choose the correct choice.
Simon Commission was welcomed with (Stones, clothes, flags, sticks)
ii. Delhi proposals were the best solution to eliminate differences.
(Sikh-Muslim; Hindu-Muslim, Christian-Hindu, Buddhism-Muslim)
iii. The Quaid-e-Azam presented his famous fourteen points in response to (Cripps Mission, Nehru Report, Pirpur Report, and Sharif Report)
Iv. Bande Matram was taken from the biased Bengali. (Newspaper, Journal, Novel, Magazine)
The Quaid-e-Azam announced to observe
(Dooms Day, Deliverance Day, Takbeer Day, Thanks Goofing Day)
3. Answer the following questions briefly.
i. Who presented the Delhi Muslim proposals?
ii. What were important points in the Communal Award?
iii. Why was Nehru Report presented?
iv. Who gave the title of Quaid-e-Azam to Muhammad All Jinnah and when?
v. Why did the Muslim League not accept the Cripps Mission?
4. Give detailed answers to the following questions
• Discuss the important points of Simon Commission.
• Describe the key points of Allahabad Address, by Allama lqbal.
• Write detailed note on Round Table Conferences.
• Discuss the provincial autonomy in the Act of 1935.
• Review the atrocities of the congress ministries in the light of
- Arrange a debate in the class on the common and different points in the Quaid-e-Azam Fourteen points and the Nehru Report.
ii Arrange a quiz programmers on this chapter.
- Choose difficult and technical words from this chapter and explain them in your notebooks.