Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 3 Political Awakening in British India
Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 3 Political Awakening in British India. The true beginning of the nationalist fervor dates back to the second half of the 19th century. Earlier, in the period before 1857, two contradictory ideas were expressed: anti-British and pro-British. Pro-British ideas led to the rise of nationalism and patriotism in reaction to the people’s devotion to the principles of British administration and English education. Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 3 Political Awakening in British India.
Chapter 3 Political Awakening in British India
Unique Book of History Class 8th Chapter 3 Political Awakening in British India. Anti-British ideas gave rise to various political and civil movements and uprisings. Both positions were, in effect, against the British Raj and for the freedom of India. The atrocities perpetrated by the Raj spawned the ideas of political awakening. The vindication of political rights and social justice became a valued idea. The leaders of the freedom movement were eager for emancipation from the British yoke.
Students will be able to:
• Trace back the background and the formation of the Indian National Congress and its consolidation as a political organ for India.
• Narrate the background of the Partition of Bengal, the Congress agitation, the introduction of the Swedish Movement and the Muslim response.
• Discuss the British reversal of their “pledged word” and the “settled fact” and the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911.
• Delineate the origins of the Separate Electorate demand, the background of the Smile Deputation, and the formation of the All-India Muslim League.
• Discuss, M.A. Jinnah’s role as Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.
• Describe the major developments leading to the Congress-League Luck now Pact, and the Congress League Coalition till 1920.
• Elucidate the origins of and the rationale for the Pan-Islamic Movement in India and the birth of the Khilafat Movement.
Discuss the Hijrat Movement and the Reshmi Romal Movement.
Discuss the Joint Hindu-Muslim Civil disobedience Movement under M.K. Gandhi and Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, and its impact on Hindu and Muslim politics.
Highlight the salient features of Diarchy and its impact, with special reference to the Punjab and Bengal.
Formation of All India National Congress (1885) Background
The First Political party that was formed in the history of the Indo-Pak was All India National Congress. It was founded by A.O. Hume, a retired English member of the Indian civil service in 1885. Hume wished to gather prominent figures of the country and discuss social problems of the country with them. Lord Curzon suggested that if the proposed political party played the role of opposition and point out the errors of administration, it would be a better plan. In this way, the
Congress proved to be the voice of the people in legal matters. He wished that his party would not support the British imperialism, but would serve the Indians.
The First meeting of Congress was held in Bombay in December, 1885. The main objectives of the formation of this party were as follows:
1. To develop friendly relations among the people of Indo- Pak.
To develop friendly relations among patriotic individuals and to eliminate race, creed and provincial prejudices and promote sense of unity.
3. To bring in written form, the ideas of educated people on important issues of the country.
4. To enable the politicians to work for the public interest. The Congress played an important role in the freedom of Indo-Pak sub-continent. Its leadership and members made great sacrifices and ultimately compelled the British to leave India. India got independence through the efforts of Congress on 15 August; 1947.
Partition of Bengal (1905) Background
The partition of Bengal is a very important event in the history of India. The partition molded the history of the sub-continent. The partition of Bengal separated the ways of the Hindus and the Muslims. In fact, Bengal was the largest province of India. It was impossible for a lieutenant Governor to control the vast province. The present day Bangladesh, Bihar and Orissa constituted Bengal. Total area of this province was 189000 square miles and its population consisted of 80 million. The Minister for Indian affairs approved the partition of Bengal on June, 1905. In this way, East Bengal which consisted of Assam, Chittagong, Mymensingh and Dacca Division, came into being as a new province, its total area was 106,540 square miles and its population was 31 million in which 18 million were Muslims. Therefore, it was a Muslim majority province.
Map of partition of Bangal 1905
Reasons for the Partition of Bengal
1. It was a large province and administrative supervision of
Bengal was impossible for the Government.
2. Another reason was the establishment of Orissa province because the culture and language were different from those of Bengal.
Reaction on Partition of Bengal
Though the British divided this province due to administrative problems, yet this whole situation had deep effects on Indian politics. This division benefited the Muslims and they began wake up more politically.
Reaction of the Muslims
This partition made the Muslims of Bengal happier because they got their own province, East Bengal, where they were in majority. The Muslims were happy because a Muslim province was set up in India, where they could form their own government. They got rid of the Hindus political monopoly. With the creation of new province, the possibilities of their economic, social, and cultural development became bright. In the united
Bengal, they were subject to the Hindus monopoly for centuries.
By taking benefits from the British, the Hindus were grabbing land, property and trade. In short, in every walk of life the Muslims were living in a status of disappointment. In this way chances of improvement in their social life were limited. That is why the Muslims welcomed the partition of Bengal.
The Hindus and the Congress Reaction
All Hindu Organizations showed severe reaction to this partition. They considered the partition of Bengal a conspiracy to split their mother-land into pieces. The Hindu extremist leaders started regular movements against this division such as Arya Samaj and other movements, Blood-shed and violent activities started. The Hindu landlords, traders, businessmen and politicians were wary of the division because it was a severe blow to their interests in a Muslim majority province. The Hindu lawyers were against the partition; therefore, they launched a strong and successful protest. The Hindu newspapers raised their slogans because they thought that by publishing of Muslims newspapers could be dangerous for Hindu press. The biggest threat which was felt by the Hindus was that their political dominance would come to an end and they would be turned into a minority.
A Hindu leader Maharaja Mahendrachander Nandy said “The Hindu will be turned into minority and they will become slaves in their own country where the future of their children will be darker”. The Congress announced to start Swedish Movement on 7th August, 1905. According to this movement, British goods were boycotted. Apparently this movement was against the British but practically it was used as a reaction against the partition of Bengal. There were Hindu-Muslim riots in many parts of the country.
This movement was started by the Hindus to force the British to withdraw from the partition of Bengal. In this movement, emphasis was laid on the use of local goods and complete boycott of the British cloths and products. The people would bring out clothes and other equipment’s from homes, making a pile and put them to fire as hatred towards the British. Not only were the English goods boycotted, but also the sale of local English goods received a hard blow.
Annulment of the partition of Bengal 1911
The British took back the decision of the Partition of Bengal after a strong protest of Hindus. The British King George V came to Delhi in 1911 for coronation, and in Delhi Durbar the King announced the annulment of the partition of Bengal. This annulment had important effects on the politics of India; some of these are as follows.
1. End of Hindu-Muslim Unity
The annulment of the partition of Bengal badly affected the Hindu-Muslim unity. The possibilities of unity between the two major nations were almost finished. Though the Muslim had not demanded for partition, but it was the British who for the solution of administrative difficulties parted the East Bengal from the West Bengal. In this way, the gulf between the Hindus and the Muslims was widened.
The Muslim peasants and workers were forced to join Swedish Movement. Riots erupted between the Hindus and the Muslims and instead of unity, gulf of hatred widened between the two nations.
2. Effects on Muslim British Relations
The Muslims became well aware of the motives of the British to the annulment of the partition of Bengal. The Muslim leaders no more trusted the British and the Hindus. It is also a fact that the All India National Congress had been very active against the partition of Bengal. It was well organized party and the British government was well aware of its strength. Therefore, under the pressure of the Congress, they were compelled to withdraw the decision. On the other hand the Muslim League was not so organized to agitate against the government. Therefore, the British did not fear any reaction from the Muslim League to the annulment of partition. However, the annulment was against the Muslim interests. In the beginning it was objective of the Muslim League that good and friendly relations between the Muslims and the British would be established, however, after the annulment the Muslim League reviewed its strategy.
Smile Deputation and the Foundation of All India Muslim Leagues
Smile Deputation (1906)
The Muslims of Indo-Pak were facing many national problems. Joint electorate was the most important problem. In this system the Muslim minority of India could never get proper representation in the presence of the Hindu majority. It was necessary to bring these problems into the government notice. Therefore, a 35 member’s delegation headed by Sir Agha Khan left for Simla to meet Viceroy Lord Minto. This delegation met with Lord Minto on 1st October, 1906. And presented before him the following demands:
Separate electorate should be introduced.
2. Muslims should be given more seats than their ratio of population on account of their historical and political importance
3. Muslims should be given government jobs according to their population.
4. Muslims should be given representation in the administration of the universities.
5. Grant-in-aid should be allowed for the establishment of a Muslim University.
All India Muslim Leagues
In 1906 the session of Muhammadan Educational Conference was convened by Sir Saleemullah Khan in December, 1906 in Dacca. In this session, the proposal of formation of the All India Muslim League was presented by Sir Saleemullah Khan. Hakim Ajmal Khan, Mulana Muhammad Ali Johar and Mulana Zafar Ali Khan supported this proposal.
Causes of the Formation of the Muslim League
Causes of the formation of the All India Muslim League were as follows:
Protection of Indian Muslims
Hindus were still reeling from severe mental shock caused by the partition of Bengal. They began to take revenge from the Muslims. The British also repressed the Muslims and led them towards annihilation. That is why the Muslims of Indo-Pak felt a strong need for a party of their own for their survival.
A major reason for the formation of the All India Muslim League was to create the elements of unity and consensus in the Muslims. They needed a platform to show their political power at national and international level.
After failure in the War of Independence in 1857, the
British victimized the Muslims. The Muslim faced economic misery. They were discriminated against in services and trade. They needed a nationwide political party to protect their rights.
Protection of culture, and civilization
To destroy a nation it is essential to weaken or destroy their civilization, culture, and society. The British and the Hindus adopted the same method to crush the Muslims. The Muslims needed a political party to keep their traditions and values alive.
Partition of Bengal
The emergence of a new province i.e. East Bengal awakened the Muslims and their leadership was encouraged. The partition benefitted the Muslims politically. The Muslim leadership wished to form a political party and get political reforms and privileges from the government.
The Muslims of India met the Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla in October, 1906. The Viceroy considered sympathetically the demands of the delegation. It encouraged the Muslims to form a political party in a formal way so that the Muslims might present their political demands in an organized way.
There were certain political interests of the Muslims in India such as quota for Muslims in civil Services, appointment of Muslim judges, and preservation of the Urdu language, right representation of the Muslims in legislatures and Viceroy’s Council and separate electorate. They needed a political party to present these demands in an organized form.
Sir Syed’s Advice
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan earlier, a great promoter of the Hindu-Muslim unity, advised the Muslims to keep aloof from the Congress. He presented the idea of Two Nation Theory and paved the way for the establishment of Muslim League.
Foundations and Objectives of the Muslim League
Muhammadan Educational Conference in a resolution announced the establishment of the All India Muslim League on 30th December, 1906 and declared three objectives of the Muslim League in the resolution:
1. To promote the feelings of loyalty to the British Government and to remove misconception, and to promote good friendly relations between the Muslims and the British,
2. To protect the political and other rights of the Indian Muslims.
3. To promote friendly feelings among the Muslims and other communities of India without damaging the above objectives
Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League in 1913. From now onwards Muslim League became more active in its struggle for the Muslims’ rights.
Role of the Quaid-e-Azam in Congress-Muslim League Rapprochement
Luck now Pact
After the annulment of the partition of Bengal in 1911, the Muslims did not trust the British. Now the Congress and the British had become a common foe of the Muslim League. When Quaid-e-Azam became member of the Muslim League in 1913, his efforts led to an agreement between the Muslim League and the Congress in 1916 which is known as Luck now Pact. Main points of the Luck now Pact is as under:
1. In the large provinces, the strength of the legislative council would be 125, whereas in the small provinces it would be from 50 to 75, and it was decided that 80% candidates will be elected directly
2. In centre, there will be a Legislative Council of 150 members, and it was agreed that 80% would be directly elected.
3. Muslims should be elected through special electorate and their strength in different provinces shall be as follows: Punjab 50°/0, Bengal 40%, U.P30%, Bihar 25`)/0, C.P 15%, Madras15`)0 , Bombay 1/3 of Hindu members. In all provinces, Muslims will be elected from separate electoral constituencies. It was decided that the Muslims would contest only from those constituencies where there were seats reserved for them.
4. It was decided that no bill would be discussed in a Legislative Council, which would affect other nations and 75% member of that nation oppose the bill in the Legislative Council.
5. Provinces will be given maximum administrative and financial autonomy and will be free from the control of the central government. However, the Imperial Council will consider those matters for which equal legislation is essential in the sub-continent.
6. 33% of the elected members of the Imperial Council will consist of Muslims for a term of five years.
7 One-eighth members of any Council can call the session.
8. Half of the members of the Governor General’s Executive Council will be Indians and they will be elected by the elected members of the Imperial Council.
9. The Central Legislative Council will not interfere un-warranted in the matters of provincial interests.
Importance of Luck now Pact
Luck now Pact brought about important changes in the process of election. Firstly, the Congress recognized the procedure of separate electorate which they had earlier bitterly opposed. Congress also recognized it in Punjab and C.P where it did not exist before. Secondly, the Muslims were given more seats than their proportion of population in those provinces where they were in minority. But the Muslims had to pay heavy price for those two concessions. In Punjab and Bengal, they were in majority, but were reduced to minority. In the Luck now Pact, the Muslims on a written document, made Hindus agree to their demands which they had denied constantly. For the first time, Hindus recognized Muslims as a separate entity and bent to their demand of separate electorate which caused the emergence of Pakistan.
Khilafat and Hijrat Movements: Khilafat
Khilafat means regency bestowed by Allah. No one in this world is to rule with his own will. Khilafat implements only the rule of Almighty Allah. In an Islamic state, Muhammad (SAWS) holds a central role. He uses to be the authority, who guides the world affairs, monitored the Baitul Mail and uses to be the supreme commander of armed forces. All decisions are to be taken according to his will and guidance. He established a truly Islamic State. His successors are called Khalifa and this form of Islamic state is called Khilafat. The first four Khalifa were Hazrat Abu Baker, Hazrat Umar, Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali (RU).
In the mid-nineteenth century, a famous political thinker of Afghanistan Syed Jamaluddin Afghani started a movement of unity and harmony among the Muslims which was called “Islamic unity”. He wanted to establish a Muslim State consisting of South Asian and South-West Asian Muslim Countries.
He realized the hypocrisy and anti-Muslim policy of the British and advocated that the only remedy for it was the unity of the Muslim. For this purpose, he visited many countries including India.
Background of Khilafat Movement
The First World War started in 1914. Turkey, Germany, Austria and Hungry were fighting against the Allied Forces. This war also had an impact on the political situation of India. The British led the Allied forces, while the Muslims of India favored Turkey. It was sure that the Allied forces would win the war. The Muslims of India were worried about the safety of the Islamic centers (Makah and Medina), Islamic culture and civilization. The British also needed the help and co-operation of the Indians. Besides, they wanted internal peace in India. They tried their best to take Indian leaders in confidence. For this purpose the British made several promises about constitutional reforms in India after the war. The Indian Muslim leadership announced to support the British in the war conditionally.
Objectives of the Khilafat Movement
1. Ottomon Caliphate: Ottoman Caliphate was the spiritual
Centre for the Muslims of the world. The Muslims had a great respect for the Khalifa of Turkey. In case of the defeat of Turkey, the British and the Allied Fores could destroy Caliphate in Turkey. The Muslims of India helped the British on the condition that the Ottoman Caliphate would be kept intact.
2. Territorial Integrity: The Ottoman Empire was a great
Islamic caliphate. In case Turkey’s loss, the Allied Forces could divide it among themselves. The Indian Muslims co-operated with the British on the condition that the territorial integrity of Ottoman caliphate would remain the same.
3. Holy places: After getting success in the war, the British would protect all the holy places of the Muslims.
The First World War ended in 1918 in the British victory. Turkey was a Muslim State. The British victimized the Muslims only. The British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, considered this victory as the revenge of the defeat by Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi. In the peace agreement strict sanctions were imposed on Turkey. Conspiracies were underway to break Turkey into pieces. During the war, they spent nearly half billion rupees from Indian Treasury. In the war, 8 million soldiers and 4 million civilians supported the British. After that, the Government introduced the Government of India Act 1919. But after the war, they began to neglect the conditions already accepted. Muhammad Ali Jauhar started the Khilafat Movement to pressurize the government. The Movement was organized country-wide in October, 1919. A committee was formed in a joint meeting of the Muslim League and the Congress at Amritsar. The Congress leader, Mahatma Gandhi announced to support the Muslims completely. Protest rallies were held nationwide. A delegation met the Viceroy in January, 1920, but failed. Muhammad Ali Jauhar led a delegation from India to Britain and France in March, 1920, but failed. Muhammad Ali Jauhar played a great role in the Movement. According to H.G. Wells “Muhammad Ali possessed the pen of Macaulay, the Tongue of Burke and the heart of Napoleon” A country-wide agitation was launched because the British did not fulfil their promise. Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement was in full swing, and it was apparent that the British would leave the country but due to some reasons the movement failed.
Reshmi Romal Movement:
After the failure of the war of independence in 1857, the British made the lives of the Muslims miserable. The Muslim Mujahedeen were blown away by cannon-shells. Princes were beheaded. Their social and economic rights were trampled. Madrasa Rahirniya and Masjid Akbari were demolished as revenge and the British tightened their hold. It was a distressing situation for the Muslim leaders. Therefore, Maulana Mahmood ul Hassan with the consultation of other Ulama of Deoband launched a movement which was called Reshmi Romal Movement. This movement was started in 1915 and its main objective was to expel the British Government from Indo-Pak and to establish free national government. The movement sent delegations to different countries for seeking their support, namely Burma, China, Japan, France and Germany etc. The movement’s headquarter was in Kabul. Besides Kabul, its centers were also established in Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Germany etc. Maulana Mehmood-ul-Hassan visited several countries especially Turkey and Germany and its underground activities were continued for almost a decade.
Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hassan planned to attack India with the help of Turkey and Germany from Afghanistan. For this purpose, Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi made an agreement with Turkey and Afghanistan. It was written on a one-square yard silk cloth.
This was called Reshmi Romal on which the date of attack (19th February, 1917) on India was written. Moreover, process of preparing people within India was in progress. Meanwhile due to Amir Habibuallah Khan of Afghanistan and a few of his conspirators, the message on the silk sheet was apprehended. Tribes began jihad and Amir Habibuallah Khan was killed. Haji Sahib Torangzai was the in forefront in this Jihad. The British arrested the leaders of this movement who were present in India. Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hassan was also exiled to Malta. That is why he is called the Prisoner of Malta. This movement failed because of internal conspiracies.
In 1919 Ulama issued fatwa on a religious verdict that India was Dar-ul-Harb i.e. an embattled land and it was against their religion to live in this country. Resultantly thousands of Muslims migrated to Afghanistan. The Government of Afghanistan did not co-operate with the refugees. It was an emotional movement and many leaders were not agreed to it. When these refugees reached Afghanistan, they had no solid programmed what to do? The government of Afghanistan could neither handle them nor fight the British. Therefore, the Afghan Government did not support this movement. Consequently, these refugees came back in a very miserable condition. It was a serious blow to the Khilafat Movement.
The Act of 1919 and Diarchy in Provinces
Several events had occurred in Indo-Pak after Minto-Morley Reforms 1909. The British wanted to enforce more consensus based reforms than those in the past. Therefore, In 1919 Montague-Chelmsford reforms were introduced in the provinces. According to this Act several Ministers and their departments were under direct control of the Governor, while several other Ministers and their departments were answerable to the legislative assembly. These were under direct supervision of the British. Ministers selected from Assembly were accountable to nominated assembly. Objective of this system was that several provincial affairs would be run by the Indians themselves, and some important departments would remain under the British control.
Though these reforms were more democratic as compared to the previous reforms, yet they were not acceptable to the Indians as well. The political parties of India were demanding a responsible government.
In this Act, supremacy of the Governor General and the provincial Governors was retained. In provinces diarchy system was not useful .Government servants were not under the ministers. Although this system created special problems in Punjab and Bangal, yet this was a step towards responsible policy in the Indo-Pak.
End of Khilafat Movement
Due to some reasons, Hindu-Muslims riots started in a village Moplah in the State of Malabar and spread all over India. It badly affected the Hindu-Muslim unity and consequently ended the Khilafat Movement. Mustafa Kama’ Ataturk brought a revolution in Turkey and founded a Secular State. He called for an end of Ottoman Empire. Logically, there remained no justification to continue Caliphate movement. At Chari Chore police used violence on a procession. The Congress procession set the police station on fire. As a result several constables were burnt alive. This incident shocked Gandhi because he was the promoter of non-violence and he announced to withdraw the Non-Co-operation movement. This announcement put an end to the Caliphate Movement.
Results or impacts of Khilafat Movement
Although the Khilafat Movement failed to achieve its real objectives, still it had lasting impacts on Indian politics.
• The failure of Khilafat Movement created turmoil in the politics of the sub-continent.
• Under the Luck now Pact, the two parties had come nearer to each other. From 1916 to 1922 the Alliance was very successful against the British Imperialism.
• At that time, Mahatma Gandhi was a sole leader of Non-agitates politics. The event of Chari Chakra disappointed him and he announced to finish all movements including Non-Cooperation Movement which proved fatal for the Khilafat Movement.
• The possibilities of Hindu-Muslim unity came to an end forever.
• The Congress and the Muslim League parted their ways.
• This Movement brought about very important political changes in the region.
• The Muslims suffered a lot in all the fields. They suffered politically, socially and economically.
• The Muslim students and teachers boycotted the classes. The result was that they lagged behind in education.
• The Muslims resigned from the government jobs. As a result, the Muslims faced countless problems especially economic backwardness.
• Thousands of people were thrown in jails. Impacts of
Khilafat Movement on Muslim politics
• A major advantage of Khilafat Movement was that the whole world recognized the Muslims of India as a nation.
• The Muslim community began to assert its position on national and international level.
• The British realized that the Muslims could create problems for them and in future reforms, it would not be possible for them to sideline their demands.
• Muslim leaders like Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar and Maulana Shaukat Ali emerged, on the horizon of the Sub-Continent. Khilafat movement led to the emergence of local leaders from the Muslim community. Later on, they joined the mainstream politics to become national leaders.
Civil Disobedience and Non-Cooperation Movements (1920-22)
Civil disobedience and non-co-operation Movements were carried out jointly under the supervision of Mahatma Gandhi and Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar. In 1920, the Congress in its meeting decided to start Non-cooperation Movement against the British.
Main points of the movement were:
1 The titles awarded by the British Government would be returned.
2. Resignation from the posts of nominees of local government.
3. To Boycott programmers and meetings of the government. Boycott of students from government institutions.
5. Quitting military services.
6. Wear national clothes and boycott the British ones.
7. Boycott of courts.
The Hindus and the Muslims fully participated in the movement. Gandhi and Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar created awareness among the people of the country. The above mentioned points were followed. Four million volunteers presented themselves for the Movement. Khilafat committee and the Congress refused to participate in the election under the Act of 1919. The government was completely paralyzed and tremendous enthusiasm was shown during the Movement.
1 Fill in the Blanks with suitable words.
1. Mahatma Gandhi spearheaded early twentieth century.
i) Muslim League ii) The Khilafat Movement
iii) Congress iv) Hijrat Movement in the
2. A proposal for the establishment of the All India Muslim League was presented by
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan ii) Quaid-e-Azam
iii) Sir Saleemullah Khan IV) Allama lqbal
3. The Ottoman Khilafat was the the Muslims world.
i) Spiritual ii) Cultural
iii) Social IV) IV) Trade
4. Mahatma Gandhi was the fore bearer of
i) War ii) Violence
iii) Non-Violence IV) Peace
- The firs world and war started in ended in 1918 D.
- 1913 ii) 1914 iii) 1915 iv) 116
2. Mark correct and incorrect statements.
1. The aim of Simla Deputation was to convince the British to the principle of separate representation. Correct Incorrect
2. In 1916, a pact was signed by the Muslim League and the Congress at Luck now.
3. The Muslims were in majority in Bengal and Punjab.
4. The First World War 1918 ended with the victory of British.
- Muhammad Ali Jauhar took part in the Khilafat Movement.
- Mustafa Kamal Ataturk brought a revolution in Turkey.
7. Reshmi Romal Movement was launched in 1915.
8. Khilafat Committee and the Congress participated in the election under the Act of 1919.
3. Match the Columns
Sheikh Hind Movement
Simla Maulana Mehmood-ul-Hassan
Montague, Chelmsford Delegation
4. Give brief answers to these questions.
1. Who established the All India National Congress and when?
2. When, where and by whom was the Partition of Bengal annulled?
3. What is meant by Sawadeshi Movement?
4. When, where and by whom was the All India Muslim League formed?
5. What is meant by Reshmi Romal Movement?
5. Answer the following questions in detail.
1. What was the background of the formation of the Indian National Congress?
2. Why was Bengal divided and what were its main impacts?
3. What were the main points of Simla Deputation?
4. Why was the All India Muslim League formed?
5. Write a detailed note on Khilafat Movement.
Draw a chart of important politicians and movements of the subcontinent.
Arrange a debate on the personality and achievements of Maulana Muhammad All Jauhar.
Arrange a discussion in your class on the importance of Luck now Pact.