Smart Lecture Notes For BS Foreign policy of USA

Smart Lecture Notes For BS Foreign policy of USA

Smart Lecture Notes For BS Foreign policy of USA.

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Smart Lecture Notes For BS Foreign policy of USA
Smart Lecture Notes For BS Foreign policy of USA

Military Preparedness

  • Means how much a country is prepared for war what is the quality of its military leadership and quality of its military weapons during the early phase of world war1 Germany gain superiority over British c2 of the use of submarines these day nuclear weapons have an advantage over its competitors in 19th centaury , Neapolitan displayed superior military leadership and various


  • Diplomacy gives direction and weighs to other elements it is the brain of national Power. diplomats are skilled negotiators and during crises period they try to resolve issues through peaceful means when diplomacy fail it ultimately leads to a war diplomacy is the mean to achieve peace in any crises situation

Evolution of national power

  • Also measurement of power
  • Power is relative, its not absolute it is difficult to measure it
  • Reason = power consist of various elements power of states can only be compared e.g. at present USA is powerful than china, India is powerful Han Pakistan ,Pakistan is powerful than Afghanistan

2.Power is subject to change

  • Power is not something static it changes with the changing circumstances development of a nuclear weapon completely changes the power structure in any reason
  • The death of leader may be a loss for a state Hence its power being reduced
  • It goes on changing -power problem

3.Reliance on one element is always misleading

  • If state is powerful in one element its couldn’t be powerful otherwise
  • Its always a combination of diff elements that make a state powerful
  • CSS questions mostly come from these points technical questions

4. Over estimation and Under Estimation of Power

  • Means every state would always try to over estimate its power and underestimate other state’s power
  • E.g. Germany
  • Palestine 1964-1965
  • We overestimate ourselves and underestimate India
  • When you over estimate yourself you would be offensive when you underestimate your state you would be defensive
  • India is 80 percent powerful
  • Pak is 70 percent powerful
  • Its wrong you can’t measure it

Limitation of power

  • International law
  • International Organizations

Balance of power

  • ‘’Two powers of relatively equal strength’’
  • It limits your authority to exercise power
  • Use[is its region powerful]
  • ISSR [is its region powerful]
  • Balance of terror-Pakistan small size but having nuclear weapon to terrorize India
  • Balance of power ported from wars
  • Comparing your power with power of others
  • Its limiting your authority to exercise. It means checking power with power

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  • Suppose a state powerful of having ability to capture small state but you can’t violate the human rights


  • 9,11 was a turning point for us foreign policy as it adopted aggressive and interventionist instruments to assert its authority and protect its national interest
  • Application of drone is one such instrument all this has started the image of USA as a hard power instead of being a soft power
  • In may 2010 united states declared its National Security Strategy that embodies its foreign policy objectives
  • In 2015 two achievements of Obama are
  • Establishing relations with Cuba after 50 years —And secondly signing of US Iran Nuclear deal

Doctrines of US foreign policy

  • What is a presidential doctrines
  • Refers to a more consistently applied foreign policy ideology ‘
  • Someone who is talking about something too frequently and I think you are familiar with 2,3 president
  • What do u think doctrine of this president
  • Something they talk about all the time
  • Bush= war against terror
  • Drone is you know doctrine
  • 1.Munro doctrine
  • 2.Roswilt
  • 3.Truman doctrine
  • 4.Carter doctrine
  • 5.Regan doctrine
  • 6.Bush doctrine
  • 7.Obama doctrine

Munro doctrine

  • The first major presidential foreign policy Munro doctrine was created by James Munro  in 1823, its also known as hands off.
  • It means America wouldn’t allow European colonial powers to further colonize in the Americas or interfere with independent states.
  • US was itself a colony after getting independence 1776 , previously US got independence now preventing colonies
  • European colonial powers got to affair
  • It was in time also known as isolation policy
  • You are telling Europeans to stay away that means state should also stay away
  • Policy of isolationism

Roswell doctrine

  • There are two Roswell’s
  • Theodor žFranklin
  • He as a matter of fact amended Monroe doctrine[Franklin]  by stating that ‘US would act to help stabilize economic problems for struggling latten American nation’
  • Also helping the poor people
  • You can only progress if region is not suffering from underdevelopment
  • Providing support where ever its needed

Truman doctrine

  • 1947
  • Harry Truman
  • This was part of his containment policy[containment of communism]
  • US promised to send money, equipment and military force to countries that were threatened by and resisting communism.
  • This was the beginning of policy of containment due to which cold war started which continued for 45 years up to 1990

Carter doctrine

  • Jimmy 1980 it was containment of communism in the middle east as Soviet Union wanted to control the oil resources of middle east.
  • Military force would be used if necessary to protect American economic and national interests in the Persian Gulf

Regan doctrine

  • It was regarding Afghanistan 1984
  • It was a major change In the containment policy moving from the simple containment to a more direct assistant to those fighting against communist government
  • Under this doctrine US provided military and financial support to majority in Afghanistan

Bush doctrine

  • Bush junior
  • This was given after 9-11
  • American presidential statement, ’’ you are either with us or against us is the basis of this doctrine’’
  • It means that those who harbor terrorist should be treated the same as those who are terrorist themselves
  • This doctrine was also about preemptive war[attacking era-before being attack you should strike]
  • Invasion of Iraq is one such example of preventive war

Obama doctrine

  • This doctrine would emphasize negotiations and collaborations rather than confrontation and unilaterism it was a welcome change from interventionist approach of his predecessor.
  • President Obama believes in targeted approach against terrorist instead of invading a state. Use of drones against the terrorists is one of its components.
  • Improvements of relations with Cuba and US-Iran deal is an extension of this doctrine.

3.Guiding Principles

1.Keeping the Americans people safe.

○Two examples

○Perl harbor and 9-11

2.Bringing the war on terror to an end

3.Restoring American leadership

4.Keeping US strong and prosperous

5.Promoting American values of democracy, human rights, individualism and  capitalism

6.Confronting the challenges of 21st centaury such as

Terrorism —Climate change

Global warming and The spread of nuclear technology

Current Foreign/US Policy under president Obama

  • President Obama has pursued
  • 1.national security policies that keep the American people safe.
  • 2.Bringing the decade of war to an end by withdrawal of  its troops from Afghanistan and Iraq
  • 3.Restoring the American leadership by consulting its European partners Asian allies while taking important foreign policy decision
  • 4.In 2010 National Security Strategy was announced consisting of 4 components
  • 1)The security of American people
  • 2)A  growing US economy
  • 3)Support for its values
  • 4)An International order that can address 21st centaury challenges

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