Paramedics Note’s Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Paramedics Note’s Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan. A paramedic is a highly trained and skilled medical professional who is trained to perform some of the duties of a physician. Paramedics can examine, diagnose and treat patients with equipment and medications that are usually only found in the hospital’s emergency department.

Paramedics are commonly used as emergency care practitioners on ambulances or first responder emergency vehicles. There are more specialized job opportunities for experienced paramedics in areas such as cruise ship medical departments, offshore oil drilling platforms, helicopter or fixed-wing medical transport and hyperbaric oxygen chambers.

Table of Contents

Paramedics Note’s Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan


The term paramedic is used to identify personnel who work as an extension of physicians. The former paragraph means “with” and medic means “physician”. Works as an extension of a paramedic. The procedures and medications administered by the paramedic are under the direction and supervision of a doctor. This can be done by direct surveillance or remotely by telephone, radio, or pre-established written orders.

Paramedics must be ambitious, honest, calm, intelligent, caring, impartial and non-judgmental who are mentally and physically strong. These are just some of the goal-setting shareware that the EMT-P Program Selection Committee is looking for.

Paramedics Notes for Diploma holder students 2021

Infection and Disease

INFECTION: Any disease that can be transmitted from one person to another.is called infection disease

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Paramedics Note’s Infection and Disease

Type of infection:

  1. Bacterial infection: Bactria cause, meningitis, food poisoning, respiratory infection, urinary infection,
  2. Viral infection: it is most common e.g. common cold, AIDS, hepatitis, etc.
  3. Fungal infection: it mostly causes skin disease e.g. urticarial etc.

Health: the word health refers to a state of complete emotional and physical wellness. Being.

Disease: a disorder with a specific cause and recognizable signs symptom is called disease.

Signs: an indication of a particular disorder that is observed by the physician e.g. inflammation, pus formation, swelling, etc.

Symptoms: an indication of a disease or disorder sensations noticed by the patient himself e.g. headache, abdominal pain, sore throat,

Incubation period: is the time from the bacteria virus enter the body and first seen- signs and symptoms.

Complication: a secondary disease or condition aggravating an already existing one.

Inflammation: a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes.

Reddened, swollen, hot, and a reaction to injury or infection.

Rezivior: a population, tissue, etc. which is chronic infection with the causative agent of a disease and can act as a source of further infection.

Risk factors:

  1. Longer stay in a hospital.
  2. Use of unhygienic procedures.
  3. Over or under use of antibiotics.
  4. High risk area.
  5. Wounds.

How to diagnose patient:

→ Medical diagnosis based on information from sources such as finding from a physical examination interview with the patients or family or both,

→ Medical history findings as reported by laboratory tests and radiologic studies.

→ Clinical diagnosis made on the basis of medical signs and reported symptoms. Rather than diagnostic tests

→ Laboratory diagnostic is a diagnosis based significantly on laboratory reports or test results rather than the physical examination of the patients

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

MEASLES

An infection viral disease caused by paramyxovirus OR morbillivirus

Incubation period: 10 to 14 days

Clinical Features:

  • Fever.
  • Nasal discharge.
  • Sneezing.
  • Eye burning.
  • Epiphora.
  • Cough.
  • Laryngitis.
  • Rashes are present an face, neck, chest & back.

Complications:

1: corneal ulcer – pneumionia.

Prevention:

1: close contact with the infected patient

Diagnosis: complete blood count (CBC) urine RE

Treatment:

  • Antibiotics e.g. cephradin,
  • Analgesics & Antipyretics e.g.panadol or Ibuprofen.
  • Anti-histamine e.g. Citrizine.
  • Vitamin with lysine e.g. vitamin B complex

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

RUBELLA

It is a viral infection that spread by droplet mode.

Incubation period: usually 18 days

Clinical Features:

  • Fever.
  • Body ache.
  • Head ache.
  • Sore throat.
  • Skin rashes which first behind the ear and on forehead.
  • The rashes spread to chest abdomen and limbs.
  • It occur in pregnancy lady durning 1st trimester

Investigations:

1: blood in the antibody

2: complete blood count (CBC) with Urine RE

Complication: polyarthritis.

Preventions: children are vaccinated (MMR) at 12-15 months of age

Treatment:

  • Antibiotics e.g. augmentin,
  • Analgesics & Antipyretics e.g.panadol Ibuprofen.
  • Anti histamin e.g. Citrizine.
  • Vitamin with lysine e.g. vitamin B complex

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

WHOOPING COUGH

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Note’s Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

A contagious bacterial disease of the respiratory tract and mucous membrane.

Causative organism: Bordetella pertussis.

Clinical Features: it consists of three stages.

  1. Catarrhal stages: in this stage the chill suffers from cold,cough,redness in inflammation of eye sneezing rhinorrhoea conjunctivitis and dry cough and shortness of breath
  2. Paroxysmal stage: in this stage the disease chil have sever attack of cough. He has many attack of cough at a time which is followed by a specific voice of whoop OR vomiting
  3. Recovery stages: in this stage the symptom of child improve cough becomoy decrease general condition of patient

Complication:

1: Pneumonia

2: Intracranial bleeding

3: Intraocular bleeding

4: Hypoxia

Investigation:

1: Throat swab Culture

2: X-ray Chest

3: Complete blood count (CBC) & Urine-RE

Preventions: Do DPT vaccine to all children erythromycin is used prevention for children

Treatment:

  • Azithromycin 250 or 500 mg BD
  • Cosome syp OR Sancos-DM TDS

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

DIPHTHERIA

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

An acute infection disease which causes fever and difficulty in breathing and swallowing

Causative organism: it is caused by gram-positive bacteria.

Incubation period: Usually 4 days.

Type of diphtheria:

  1. Pharyngeal Diphtheria __including tonsillar diphtheria
  2. Laryngeal Dipatheria __occuring in larynx
  3. Nasal Diphtheria

Clinical Features:

  • Sore breath
  • Fever
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Difficulty in respiration
  • Rhinorrhoea
  • Coughing
  • Dysphagia
  • Membrane is visible on throat examination

Diagnosis:

1: Chest X-ray

2: Complete Blood Count (CBC)

3: Throat Swab Culture

Preventions: DPT Vaccine to all Children

Treatment:

  • Inj.Benzyl Phincillin IV Stat (ATD) TDS
  • Cap. Azithromycin BD
  • Anti-Toxin Dose

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

MUMPS

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

It is a viral disease causing swelling of the parotid salivary glands

Causes: Paramyxovirus

Clinical Features:

  • Painful swelling at affected angle of jaw
  • Headache and mild fever
  • Difficulty in opening the mouth
  • Difficulty in swallowing

Complication:

  1. Inflammation of testes
  2. Inflammation of meninges
  3. Inflammation of ovaries
  4. Inflammation of pancreas

Preventions:

  1. Children are vaccinated for mumps (MMR= measles mumps and rubella)

Treatment:

  • Tab.ponestan fort OR Tab. Arinac fort BD
  • Tab.Prednisolon OR Danzen DS BD OR TDS
  • Complete bed rest & soft diet

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

RABIES

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

An acute viral disease of the nervous system is usually transmitted by the bite from an infected dog

Causative Organism: Rhabdovirus

Incubation Period: 10 days to 1 year

Clinical Features:

Fever

Paresthesia at the site of the bite

Anxiety (fear)

Pain in inflammation at the site of the bite

Complication: Coma & death

Investigation: Complete blood count (CBC) with Blood Sugar

Preventions: Anti – Rabies Vaccine

Treatment:

  • Diazepam 10mg TDS is given IV-Fluid may be given

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

CHICKEN POX

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

It a viral disease, especially of children that causes a slight fever and many spots of the skin

Causes: varicella (herpes) virus

Clinical Features:

  • Skin rashes which first appear on chest and abdomen spread face and limbs
  • Skin burning and itching is present
  • Bodyache and fever

Complication: Pneumonia Encephalitis

Treatment:

  • Anti – histamin __ Citrizine 10mg OD
  • Anti – pyretic __ paracetamol
  • Antibiotic __ cephradin 250 500mg BD
  • Local antiseptic wash of lesion dettal lotion __ dettal soap

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

Tetanus

An acute infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wound spasm of jaw and laryngeal muscles

Causative Organism: Clostridium tetani

Incubation Period: usually 14 days

Etiology: Clostridium tetani found in soil and faeces of the animal

Clinical Features:

  • Rigidity of muscles of jaw
  • Bodyache and mayalgia
  • Stiffness of muscles in neck in jaw
  • Difficulty in opening of mouth
  • Difficulty in mastication
  • Rigidity of respiration

Investigation: complete blood count (CBC) CT-scan

Preventions: injection-TT IM stat injection human tetanus 1gm 500 unit IM state

Treatment:

  • Proper wash of wound
  • Inj.Benzyl pincilline IV (ATD) TDS Inj.Diazepam TDS

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

Typhoid fever

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Enteric fever is an acute infection disease marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration

Causes: caused by salmonella Typhi

Mode of spread: infection spreads through contaminated food OR drink OR water OR flies

Clinical Features:

  • High grade and continuous fever
  • Fever usually more than 101 degree Fahrenheit
  • Fever is low in morning increase to a high limit at evening
  • Bodyache, headache, muscle pain
  • Sore throat and mild cough
  • Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea and Constipation
  • Skin rashes on chest OR abdomen
  • Tongue is coated
  • Abdomen may be tender

Download all types of notes and article

Complication:

Relapse of fever takes place if not treated proper

Intestinal haemorrhage

Intestinal perforation

Investigation:

Typhidot

Complete blood count (CBC)

Urine _ RE

Preventions:

Typhoid vaccine

Typhoid patient should not handle food item

General treatment:

Complete bed rest

Good easily digestible diet

Specific treatment:

  • Inj.ceftrixon 500mg 1gm (ATD) BD IV stat
  • Inj. Zantac and inj. Decadron in 100ml pladex IV stat BD 5 days
  • OR
  • Tab.panadol TDS
  • Tab.lefloxe 250mg BD
  • Cap.esoo 20 mg BD
  • Syp.motilium TDS

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

Dengue fever

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

It is a viral disease it is transmitted by bite of mosquito is called aedes

Clinical Features:

There is sudden onset of fever with chills

Sever Bodyache

Bleeding from nose, gums

Bleeding in GIT

Bleeding in urinary tract

Diagnosis: FBC

Complication: Bleeding bone marrow

Preventions: prevent bite of mosquito

Treatment:

  • Tab.panadol for pain and fever
  • Blood transfusion is needed.

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

MALARIA

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

An acut infection disease marked by paroxysms of chills, fever and red blood celles by the malaria parasites

Causes: plasmodium vivax, plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium malarial, plasmodium ovale,

Incubation period: 5 to 14 days

Spread: malaria is transmitted to human by the bite of specific femal mosquito called anopheles

Type of malaria:

  1. Tertion malaria: in this type the malaria fever attack after every 48 hour after every 3rd day tertion malaria caused of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium ovale
  2. Quartant malaria: in this type the malaria fever attack after every 72 hours after every 4th day. Quartant malaria caused of plasmodium malaria.
  3. Irregular malaria: in this type the malaria fever attack irregular after every 40 to 48 hours some time attacks even after 24 hours the cause of this irregular malaria is plasmodium falciparum.

Clinical Features:

  • Chills with shivering continue for 15 minutes to one hour
  • There may be Bodyache headache and malais
  • Pallor, nausea, vomiting are there
  • The fever 104 degree Fahrenheit
  • Fever lasts for many hours followed by sweating

Three stage of malaria fever:

  1. Cold stage: patient feels cold and wears blanket.
  2. Hot stage: patient feels hot and throw blanket.
  3. Sweating stage: sweating stage on body of patient and fever lowers

Complication:

Cerebral malaria

Black water fever

Anaemia

Diagnosis: MP CBC Urine RE

Preventions: Environment should be free from mosquitos

Treatment:

  • Injection.Meather 80mg Inj. Provas IM state BD
  • Tablets.Artem 40mg Dose is 2 tablets stat, than 2 tablets after 8 hours 1 tablets BD for two OR three days
  • Tablets.panadol TDS
  • IV_ Fluid
  • Complete Bed rest and soft diet

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

RHEMATIC FEVER

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Rhematic fever marked by inflammation and pain in the joint

Causative Organism: Beta Haemolytic Group

Spread: Rhematic fever usually occurs 10 – 15 days after sore throat pharyngitis cardidue to an infection of beta Haemolytic group – A Streptococci

Clinical Features:

  • Inflammation of heart
  • Shortness of breath
  • Palpitation
  • Edema
  • Chest pain
  • Cardiac murmur
  • It is inflammation of joints Joint is painful
  • Joint are swallon, painful and stiff
  • Anorexia
  • Joint are red hot and tender to touch

Complication: Corditis, cardiac valvullar murmurs, meningitis, pneumonia

Diagnosis: CBC_ Urine RE_ Chest x-ray_ ECG

General treatment:

  • Strict bed rest__ proper nutrition
  • Symptoms treatment: of vomiting, tension, cardiac failure,

Specific treatment:

  • Tab.Aspirin 300mg
    • Dose: 3+3+3 for first weak
      • 2+2+2 for second weak
      • 2+2 for third weak
  • Tab.Prednisolo 3+3+3 for first weak
      • 2+2+2 for second weak
  • Tab.Azithromycin 250 or 500mg BD
  • Cap.Essomeprazol 20 or 40mg BD
  • Inj.penadur L-A 12 lac units IM (ATD)

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

HYPERPYREXIA

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Hyper means “HIGS” and pyrexia mean “FEVER” so hyperpyrexia means ” HIGH GRADE FEVER ” this condition is an emergency and is also knows as heat stroke OR high body temperature

  • Symptoms: this many also include rapid breathing.pale clammy skin taenycardia and profuse sweating these symptoms are indicated with heat exhaustion (especially in children)

Complication: kidney failur.stroke and death

Treatment:

  • This is a medical emergency
  • Cold sponging should be done
  • Complete bed rest
  • Injection.cefotax 250 500mg iv stat BD 2 days
  • Syp. Augmentin BD
  • Syp. Panadol TDS
  • Syp. Gravinate BD

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

DYSENTERY

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

An infection of the intestine marked by severe diarrhoea with blood and mucous

Cause: Shigallae, A gram negative rod.

Incubation period: 1 to 6 days

Spread: by use of contaminated food of water

Clinical features:

  • Patient frequently passes small amount of stool which contain blood mucous and pus
  • Abdominal tenesmus
  • Abdominal pain
  • There may be vomiting
  • Fever may be develop
  • Due to intestinal infection

Complication:

  • Dehydration may occur
  • Electrolytes imbalance
  • Intestinal perforation

Diagnosis:

Complete blood count (CBC)

Urine RE Stool RE

Abdominal ultrasound

Treatment:

  • Tab.lefloxe 250mg BD 5 days
  • Tab.panadol TDS 5 days
  • Tab. Flagyl 400mg TDS 5 days
  • Inf.Flagyl + Inf.Novidate IV stat
  • Complete bed rest and soft diet

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

FOOD POISONING

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

The disease caused by toxine present in consumed (ingested) food is called food poisoning

Causes: Salmonella clostridium

Incubation period: less than 7 hours

Spread: infection may develop contaminated food and drink

Clinical features:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Severe diarrhoea
  • Headache
  • Generalized weakness
  • Low blood pressure
  • Cold hand and feet
  • Imbalance in serum electrolytes

Complication: dehydration + electrolytes imbalance + shock

Diagnosis:

Complete blood count (CBC) urine RE U/S Abdomin

Serum electrolytes blood sugar

Prevention:

Food sanitation

Cook and eat the meal on the same day

Follow this role if necessary

Treatment:

  • Re_hydration is essential
  • Tab.lefloxe 250mg BD
  • Tab.nospa BD
  • Tab. Flagyl 400mg TDS
  • Tab.domperidone TDS
  • Inf.Flagyl + Inf.Novidate IV stat

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

AMOEBIC DYSENTERY

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Inflammation of the colon intestine

Cause: Entamoeba Histolytica

Incubation period: 14 to 28 days

Clinical features:

  • There may be abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Abdominal tenesmus and dehydration
  • The germs into large intestine
  • Indigestion and gastric complain are there
  • Amoebic liver abscess causing fever and pain

Investigation:

Complete blood count (CBC) stool RE

U/s Abdomin for liver abscess

Complication: colonic ulcer intestinal perforation liver abscess

Treatment:

  • Inf.Flagyl + Inf.Novidate IV stat 7 days
  • Tab.lefloxe 250mg BD
  • Tab.nospa BD
  • Tab. Flagyl 400mg TDS
  • Tab.domperidone TDS
  • For fever Tab. Panadol TDS 7 days

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

CHOLERA

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

An acute small intestinal infection disease marked by sever vomiting and severe diarrhoea with dehydration and electrolytes depletion

Cause: vibrio cholera

Incubation period: few hours to 5 days

Clinical features:

  • Loose motion
  • Watery stool
  • Vomiting
  • Anorexia
  • Sunken eye
  • Lowe BP
  • Short breath
  • Oliguria

Complication:

Renal failure

Shock

Electrolytes imbalance

Investigation: complete blood count (CBC) Stool RE

Prevention: Proper hands wash with soap hand washing before each meal

Treatment:

  • ORS (oral rehydration salts)
  • Infusion Cipro
  • Infusion Mitro
  • Tab.novidate 500mg BD
  • Tab.motilium TDS
  • Tab.flagyl 400mg TDS

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

GONORRHOEA

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

An acute infection condition marked by a discharge from the urethra OR vagina

Causative organism: Neisseria gonorrhoea

Incubation period: 2 to 10 days

Mode of spread: transmitted by intercourse with infected partner from infected mother to delivery baby

Clinical features:

Inflammation of urethritis

Dysuria

Burning urine

Polyuria

Fever

Discharge pus from urethra

Discharge blood from urethra

Painful urethritis

Reddened urethritis

Complication:

Infection become chronic if kept privacy infection may spread to associated area

Diagnosis:

Complete blood count (CBC)

Urine RE

Urine calture U/S Abdomin

Treatment:

Inj.ceftrixon 1gm IV stat (ATD)

Cap.cefixime 400mg OD 5 days

Tab.danzen DS TDS 5 days

Tab. Panadol TDS 5 days

Syp.citralka TDS 5 days

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

A condition of the heart necrosis resulting from reduction in coronary blood flow and is marked by aching to sever pain in the chest and changes in the (ECG)

Causes:

Hypertion

Cigarate smoking

D.M

Increase level of cholesterol

Positive family history

Old age

Obesity

Lack of exercise

Oral contraceptive

Gastro intestinal haemorrhage

Clinical features:

Angina

Pain left arms and back

Nausea/vomiting

Abdominal discomfort

Pallor

Sweating occurs

Shortness of breath

Fatigue

Pulmonary edema

Hypotension

Diagnosis:

Complete blood count (CBC)

Urine RE

ECG

Chest x ray

General treatment:

Avoid smoking

Obesity, Tension, HTN & DM regular walk

Treatment:

Tab.Angised 0.5 Sublingual

Tab. Indral 40mg OD

Tab. Ascard 75mg OD

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

HYPERTENSION (HTN)

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Blood pressure more then 140/90 mmhg at the age of 20 years and 160/95 mmhg at the age of 50 years is taken hypertension (HTN)

Type of hypertension:

  1. Primary hypertension: in this HTN 95%no specific causes is there e.g

Cigarate smoking

D.M

Positive family history

Old age

Obesity

Lack of exercise

Oral contraceptive

2) Secondary hypertension: in this HTN 5% some specific reason is ther which cause the blood pressure high e.g

Renal disease

Renal failure

Renal artery stone

Pregnancy

Drug e.g corticosteroid

Stage of hypertension (HTN)

  1. Pre hypertension (HTN) 130______140

85_______90

  1. Mild hypertension (HTN) 140______160

90_______100

  1. Moderate hypertension (HTN) 160______180

100______110

  1. Sever hypertension (HTN) More than 180

More than 110

Clinical features:

  • Headache
  • Blurring of vision
  • Patients aggressive
  • Patients giddiness
  • Nausea / vomiting
  • Polyuria

Complication:

  • CVS
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Heart failure
  • Kidney hypertension nephropathy
  • Retina hypertension retinopathy
  • CNS stroke

Dignosis:

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Urine RE
  • ECG
  • Abdominal U/S
  • Random blood sugar (RBS)
  • Chest x ray
  • Lipid profile
  • Blood urea critinine

General treatment:

  • Low salt diet
  • Regular exercise
  • Physical and mental strees is avoided
  • Smoking should avoided
  • Steroids must avoided

Drugs therapy:

  • Tab.inderal 40mg OD
  • Tab.oneto 5mg BD or OD
  • Tab.spiromid BD

Treatment options:

  • Hypertension + D.M = tab.Amlodepin 5mg
  • Hypertension + Angina = ta.propranolol + tab.Amlodepin 5mg
  • Hypertension + obesity = Tab.spiromid + tab. Propranolol
  • Hypertension + Anxiety + Migraine = tab. Propranolol
  • Hypertension + Asthma = tab. Propranolol
  • Hypertension + Pregnancy = tab.Aldomet
  • Hypertension + Cardic failure = Tab.spiromid

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

CARDIAC FAILURE

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

It is inability of heart to pump blood to meet the requirement of the body.

Type of cardiac failure:

  1. Right side cardiac failure
  2. Left side cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure

Etiology: Hypertension, myocardial infection, heart disease, e,g Aortic stenosis

Clinical features:

Right Heart Failure:

  • Chest pain
  • Body edema
  • Lower limbs edema
  • Ankle edema
  • Hepatic pain
  • Anorexia
  • Dyspepsia due to GIT congestion

Left Heart Failure:

  • Dyspnea
  • Orthopnea
  • Nocturnal
  • Dyspnoea
  • Feeling of tiredness
  • Generalized weakness

Complication:

Pulmonary congestion

Pulmonary infection

Pulmonary odema shock

Dignosis:

Complete blood count (CBC)

Urine RE

Chest x-ray

ECG

AST (Got) N.V. upto 36 U/L

General treatment:

  • Decrease intake of salt
  • Complete bed rest
  • Proper nutrition
  • Avoid sever exertion
  • Avoid intake of NSAID

Specific treatment:

  • Tab. Spiromide at morning
  • Tab.captopril 25mg BD
  • Tab.eziday OD
  • Tab.lanoxin 0.25mg OD

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

Bell’s palsy

It is an acute weakness on one side of face due to facial nerve paralysis.

Clinical features:

There is sudden weakness on one side of face closing of eye and taste is affected there is deviation of mouth

Treatment:

  • Tab.prednisolone 7 days BD
  • Tab.neurobin BD

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

Tonsillitis

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Inflammation of tonsils is called tonsillitis

Causes: streptococci infection

Clinical features:

  • Soreness in throat
  • Mild cough
  • Dysphagia
  • Fever with shivering
  • Pain in ear
  • Tonsilis become enlarge
  • Tonsilis become hypereamic
  • High grade fever mayalgia is present

Complication: sinusitis otitis media

Dignosis:

Throat examination

Complete blood count (CBC)

R-ray PNS (Para nasal sinus)

Treatment:

  • Injection lincocin 300 or 600mg injection Decadron IM stat BD 3 days
  • Tab.Azithromycin 250 or 500 BD
      • (OR)
  • Tab.Augmention 625mg BD
  • Tab.Arinac.forte TDS
  • Oral gargles with listrin

٭٭٭٭٭٭٭٭

Pneumonia

Paramedics Note's Infection and Disease for diploma holders 2021 Pakistan

Inflammation of the lungs tissue marked by chills, fever, chest pain and cough

Clinical types: community acquired pneumonia when a healthy person gots pneumonia

Etiological types:

  1. Streptococcus pneumonia
  2. Pneumococcus
  3. Staphylococci

Symptoms:

  • Chills with fever
  • Headache
  • Chest pain
  • Nausea / vomiting
  • Dry cough
  • There may be blood in sputum
  • Hot and dry skin
  • Shortness of breath

Complication: pleural effusion

Investigations:

CBC (complete blood count)

Urine RE

Chest x-Ray

Sputum culture

Blood culture

Treatment:

  • Adults ___ Tab. Augmentin 625mg BD

Leave a Reply

Scroll to Top
%d bloggers like this: