Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU

Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU

Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU. Creating art expands a child’s ability to interact with the world around them and provides a new set of skills for self-expression and communication. Not only does art help to develop the right side of the brain, it also cultivates important skills that benefit a child’s development.

Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU
Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU


Painting Still Life and Landscape

1. Objectives:

When you have gone through this unit, you should be able to:

1. Define the concept of painting, different elements of painting.

2. Compare the different painting styles.

3. Understand different painting Medias.

4. Elaborate and identify the various types of paintings.

5. Know the history and techniques of still life painting style.

6. Define the landscape painting style, its techniques and rules.

7. Know the color techniques for landscape and coloring terms.

1. Introduction

Creating art expands a child’s ability to interact with the world around them and provides a new set of skills for self-expression and communication. Not only does art help to develop the right side of the brain, it also cultivates important skills that benefit a child’s development. But art goes far beyond the tangible statistics measured by studies. It can become pivotal modes of uninhibited self-expression and amazement for a child. Art matters the same way language matters, or the way breathing matters! it is a fundamental component of what makes us uniquely human. When we discuss art, painting is the most prominent and basic element of it. Painting has existed as an artistic tradition for thousands of years. From the cave painting of Lascaux to the great masterpieces of Davinci, it has played a historical and aesthetic role in the different ages of existence; schools of painting were developed as well as many various texts discussing the art form. Mural painting and fresco launched the theory painting into classical societies. Out of this came the development of several styles of painting. Historical, allegorical, religious, portraiture, landscape and still life are all different forms of painting that have developed over the years. Although these are generally accepted terms for artiste painting, the components that determine its value aesthetically varies. In different time periods the values of true art shift, even with its alterations the general guideline still remains. It has been said that there is no one distinction that results in a successful painting. Going back to Renaissance theory art is the true depiction of nature and its ultimate beauty. This idea was established in many writings of the Renaissance and still holds true in some aspects of the various styles painting have evolved into. Painting has gone through many shifts over the centuries and the only obvious similarity is that all involve some type of pigment on a surface and even that varies from time to time. If we rely on the theories and philosophies of the old masters we cannot accept the majority of 20th century art. So where can one go to determine the true essence of painting as an art? How can one define it? It is the artists’ depiction of their soul on a canvas that creates the masterpiece? Is it technical skill and classical styles that create the great masterpieces or just common earthly beauty depicted through the artist’s vision? These questions have reverberated throughout history and now they plague us again.

2. Basic Techniques, Rules and Application of Painting:

2.1 Definition of painting:

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Painting may have for their support such surfaces as walks, papers, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects. Painting is a mode of creative expression and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational as in a still life or landscape painting, photographic abstract, be loaded with narrative context, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both eastern and western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas, examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior wall and ceiling of the Sistine chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of eastern religious origin. Painting only can describe’ everything which can be seen and suggest every emotion which can be felt.

2.2 History of painting:

The oldest known painting is at the Grote Chauvin in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 year old. They are engraved and painted using sad ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth, abstract designs and what are possibly partial human figures. However, the earliest evidence of the act of painting has been discovered into rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in Northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of Ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia that is dated 40,000 years old. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world in India, France, Spain, Portugal, china Australia, etc.

In western cultures oil painting and water color painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically pre-dominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions. The invention of photography and a major impact on painting: In 1829 the first photograph was produced from the mind to late 19th century, photographic process improved and as it became more widespread, painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide and accurate record of the observable world. There began a series of art movements into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded, through impressionism, post-impressionism, fauvism, expressionism, cubism and Dadaism. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not equivalent transformation at the sometime. Modern and contemporary art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept, this led some to say in the 1960s that painting as a serious art form, is dead. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century belies the premature declarations of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Important works of art continue to be made in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments, the marketplace being left to judge merit.

2.3Elements of painting:

Following are the two basic elements of painting.

1. Traditional

2. Non-traditional

2.3.1. Traditional elements of painting

Intensity, color and tone, and rhythm are the traditional elements of painting. Intensity:

Perception and representation of intensity enables painting. Every painting in space has different intensity, which can represent in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surface of different intensity by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes. Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization perspective and symbols; for example, paint perceives that a particular white wall has different intensity at each point, due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a white wall in pitch darkness. In technical drawing, thickness of line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object with in an ideal outlines of an object with in a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone

Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the west but in the east, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists including Goethe, Kandinsky and Newton have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only a generalization for a color, equivalent. The word ‘red for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is an agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown etc.) painters deal practically with pigments, so ‘blue’ for a painter can be any of the blues. Phtalocyan, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt ultramarine, and so on, psychological, symbolical meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived of this the perception of painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is analogous to light in painting, “shades” to dynamics and coloration is to painting as specific timbre of musical instruments to music though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it.

Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.
Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU 6 Rhythm:

Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. If one defines rhythm as a “pause incorporated into a sequence”, then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work. This is because the esthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of “techno” directly contributes to the esthetical value. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

2.3.2 Non-traditional elements:

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand cement, straw, or wood for their texture. Examples of this art the works of jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computer to paint color on to a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter and many other. These images can be printed on to traditional canvas if required. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

2.4. Theory of painting:

Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for such 18th and 19th century philosophers as Kant or Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular; Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system, he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth. It is a copy of reality and is nothing but a craft; similar to shoemaking or casting. By the time of Leonardo painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that “Painting is a thing of the mind”. Kant distinguishes between beauty and the sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former. Although he did not refer particularly to painting, this concept was taken up by painters such as Turner and Caspar David Friedrich. Hegal recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and in his aesthetic essay wrote the painting is one of the “three romantic” arts, along with poetry and Music for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose. Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee. Kandinsky in his essay maintains that painting has s spiritual value and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do. Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted then their meaning for the viewer at the time and then analyze their wider cultural, religious and social meaning. In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted, remember that a painting before being a warhorse, a woman or some story or other is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in certain order. Thus, many 20th century developments in paintings, such as Cubism were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world, nature, which had previously been its core subject. A recent contribution to thinking about painting has been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell.

“A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed” a history of art urges it’s onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination”.

2.5. Painting styles:

Style is used in two senses; it can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify and individual artist’s work. It can also refer to movement or school that a stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word ‘style’ in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classification include the following: Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

2.5.1. Western: Modernism:

Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an any of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism. The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the “traditional” forms or art, architecture, literature religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. The often let to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used and to the further tendency of abstraction. Impressionism:

The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors. Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see, light it. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government – sponsored Paris Salon, the impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880, timing them to coincide with the official salon. A significant event of 1863 was the salon des refuses, created by the Emperor Napoleon III to display all the painting rejected by the Paris Salon. Abstract styles:

Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Abstract expressionism was an American Post World War II art movement which had a combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such a Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, and some feel. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU. Action painting:

Sometimes called “gestural abstraction” is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled splashed or smeared onto the canvas rather than being carefully applied. The resulting work often emphasizes the physical art of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s and is closely associated with abstract expressionism. Expressionism, cubism and pop art are some other modernist styles. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU. Other styles:

a. Outsider Art:

The term outsider art was coined by art critic – Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut, (raw art or rough art), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture. Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane – asylum inmates. Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category. The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch – all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream “art world”, regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work.

b. Photorealism:

Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photograph to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full fledge art movement, photorealism evolved from pop Art and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism.

Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.
Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU 7

c. Surrealism:

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s and is best known for the visual art works and writings of the group members. Surrealists art works features the elements of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader Andre Breton was explicit in his assertion that surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

2.5.2 Islamic: Persian Miniature Mughal Miniature Ottoman Miniature Persian Miniature:

A Persian miniature is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a Muraqqa. The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts. Although there is an equally well-established Persian tradition of wall-painting, the survival rate and state of preservation of miniatures is better, and miniatures are much the best-known form of Persian painting in the West, and many of the most important examples are in Western, a Turkish, Museum. Miniature painting became significant Persian genes in the 13th centuries, receiving Chinese influence after the Mongol consequents, and the highest point in the tradition was reached in 15th and 16th centuries. The tradition continued, under some Western influence, after this, and has many modern exponents.

The Persian miniature was the dominant influence on other Islamic miniature tradition. Persian art under Islam had never completely forbidden the human figure, and in the miniature tradition the depiction of figures, often in large numbers, is central. The bright and pure coloring of the Persian miniature is one of its most striking features. Mughal painting:

Mughal painting is a particular style of South Asian, generally confined to miniatures either as book illustration or as single works to be kept in albums, which emerged from Persian miniature painting, with Indian Hindu, Jain and Buddhist influences and developed largely in the court of the Mughal empire (16th – 19th centuries), and later spread to other Indian courts, both Muslim and Hindu and later Sikh. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

Mughal-style miniature paintings are still being created today by a small number of artists in Rajasthan concentrated mainly in Jaipur. Although many of these miniatures are skillful copies of originals, some artists have produced modern works using classic methods with, at times remarkable artiste have produced modern works using classic methods with at times, remarkable artistic effect. Ottoman miniature:

Ottoman miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences. It was a part of the Ottoman book together with illumination (reship), calligraphy (hat), and marbling paper called Nakkashane. The miniatures were not signed. Reason is that the works were not created entirely by one person. The Ottoman miniature painting was also different from that of European Renaissance painting tradition. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.


Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color or provide texture to objects. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

2.6 Different painting mediums:

2.6.1 Definition of Paint:

Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color or provide texture to objects.

2.6.2 Painting Mediums:

Different types of paints are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility drying time etc. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

There are different mediums in paintings that are used today. Artist’s uses different kinds of mediums, they includes acrylic, pastels, fresco, gouache, oil tempura, water color, ink, hot wax, enamel, spray paint, tempera, water miscible oil paint, glass paints.

i. Oil:

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil – especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense. These were called “varnishes” and were prized for their body and glass-oil paint eventually become the principal medium used for creating art works as it advantages became widely known. The transition began with early Netherland painting in northern Europe and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.

Oil is a type of slow dying paint. It consists of particular pigments suspended in a drying oil. This kind of medium does not dry quickly. It blends into the surroundings and allow the blending of color. It produces vivid colors with a natural sheen and distinct context. It provides a surface translucency similar to human skin making it an ideal for portrait painting. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

ii. Pastel:

Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. Pastel comes in three different types, the soft pastels, the hard pastels and the pastel pencils. The soft pastels are the most widely used; it has a higher portion of pigments and less binder. The hard pastel has a higher portion of binder and less pigment.

The pastel pencils are pencils with pastel leads. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process. Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass. It may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity or dimensions of the medium as it dries.

iii. Acrylic:

Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic points can be diluted with water, but become water resistant when dry. Depending on how much the point is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a water color or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over under paintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques but in other regards it impedes the artist trying to work quickly.

So we can say acrylic is a fast drying paint. It contains pigments suspended in polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints are usually diluted with waters. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

iv. Water color:

Water color is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other support includes papyrus, back papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas.

The art of water color extremely began in the cave paintings of the Paleolithic Europe used in manuscript illumination by the Egyptians and continuous to flourish in the renaissance. Water color paint consists of four principle ingredients:

Colorant (commonly pigment), binder, the substance that holds the pigment in suspension and fixes the pigment to the painting surface, additives, substance that alter the viscosity, hiding, durability or color of the pigment and vehicle mixture, lastly, the solvent, the substance use to thin or dilute the paint for application and that evaporates when the paint hardens or dry.

In East Asia, watercolor painting with links is referred to as, brush painting or scroll painting.

In Chinese, Korean and Japanese painting it has been dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Finger painting with water color paints originated in china.

v. Ink:

In paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush or quill. Ink can be complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, surfactants, particulate matter, fluoresces and other materials. The ink’s carrier, colorants and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

vi. Hot wax:

Encaustic painting also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface – usually prepared wood; though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used some containing other types of waxes dammar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients.

vii. Fresco:

Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco came from the Italian word fresco (Fresh). There are three types of fresco, the Boon fresco, which consist of painting pigments mixed with water on a thin layer of plaster. Seoul, which done in dry plaster. The pigment requires a binding medium such as egg (tempura, glue or oil to attach pigments). The mezzo – fresco. In this type, the pigment should only penetrate slightly on a plaster. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

viii. Gouache:

Gouache, derived from Italian gauze, water pan, splash or body color. This medium is also dilute in water. It differs from water color considering that its particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much bigger and white pigment such as chalk is present on it.

ix. Enamel:

Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with frit, a type of powdered glass. Minerals called oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750 – 850 degrees Celsius (1380 – 1560 degrees Fahrenheit) the result is a fused lamination of glass and mental. Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects but have also been used for other purposes. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures. In the later 20th century, the techniques of porcelain enamel on metal has been used ad durable medium for outdoor murals.

x. Spray Paint:

Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a value button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store aerosol premier can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics.

Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street, graffiti writers’ signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil can be used to protect a surface except the specific shape that is to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

xi. Tempera:

Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with water – soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the painting done in this medium. Tempera painting are very long lasting, examples from the first centuries AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint which is commonly called tempera consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufactures in America as poster paint.

xii. Water miscible oil paint:

This is a modern variety of oil paint. One of its features is that it can be thinned and cleaned up with water. The water solubility comes from the use of oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules.

xiii. Glass paints:

The water colors tend to be water or gum Arabic based, and can be applied with a brush in a method similar to the way water colors are applied. In most cases, these paints are fired onto the glass using a kiln. There are several major types of traditional stained glass paints, including vinegar trace paint, matt paint, silver stain and oil based paints. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.
Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU 8

2.7 Types of painting:

Following are the different forms of painting:

1. Allegory

2. Bodegon

3. Body painting

4. Figure painting

5. Illustration painting

6. Portrait painting

7. Veduta

8. Still life

9. Landscape painting

2.7.1 Allegory:

Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language; it may be addressed to the eye, and is often found of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.

2.7.2 Bodega:

In Spanish art bodega is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game and drink, often arranged on a simple stone stab and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands than it ever was in southern Europe.

Northern still life had many sub genres the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-loyal, the flower bouquet, and the vanities. In Spain there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware lay on a table.

2.7.3 Body painting:

Body painting is a form of body art. Unlike tattoo and other forms of body art, body painting is temporary, painted onto the human skin and lasts for only several hours, or at most a couple of weeks. Body painting that is limited to the face is known as face painting. Body painting is also referred to as temporary tattoo; large scale or full-body painting is more commonly referred to as body painting, while smaller or more detailed work is generally referred to as temporary tattoos.

2.7.4 Figure painting:

Figure painting is a form of the visual arts in which the artist uses a live model as the subject of a two-dimensional piece of art work using paint as the medium.

It is analogous in most respects to figure drawing, which is usually done in crayon, ink pencil, water color or mixed media on paper. Some artists well known for figure paintings are Peter Paul, Rubens, Edgar Degas and Eduard Mamet.

2.7.5 Illustration painting:

Illustration painting is those used as illustration in books, magazines and theater or movie posters and comic books, today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original art work. Various museum exhibitions, magazines and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past. In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable art works that can acquire a wider market than the other two.

2.7.6 Portrait painting:

Portrait paintings are representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is display the likeness, personality and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where setters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best known portraits in the western world is Leonardo da Vinci’s painting title Mona Lisa, which is painting of an unidentified woman.

2.7.7 Vedanta:

A vendetta is a highly detailed usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Brill painted verdure as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized verdure of familiar scenes like the Roman forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the continent for aristocratic English man. In the later 19th century, more personal impressions” of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

Important points:

1. Painting is the prominent and basic element of Art.

2. Historical. Allegorical, religious, portraiture, landscape and still life are different forms of painting that have developed over the years.

3. Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to surface.

4. Intensity, color and tone and rhythm are the traditional elements of painting.

5. Traditional and Non-traditional are the two basic elements of painting.

6. Julian Bell said, “A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed” a history of art urges it’s onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of imagination.

7. Acrylic, pastels, fresco, gouache, oil, tempura, watercolor, ink, hot wax, enamel, spray paint, tempera, water miscible oil paint, glass paints are the different mediums used in paintings by Artist.

8. Allegory, Bodega, Body painting, figure painting, vendetta, still life , landscape painting.

Self-assessment Questions 1

Q1. Answer the following Questions in few lines.

I) What is painting? Define in your own Words.

II) What do you mean by color and tone as traditional elements of painting.

III) Differentiate between Impressionism and Surrealism as style of painting.

IV) What is the difference between painting styles and painting mediums?

V) Enlist different types of painting which one is your favorite and why?

Q2. Write a comprehensive note on painting .its different techniques and mediums

Q3. How can the history of painting helps in learning painting techniques and styles. Discuss.

Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.
Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU 9

3. Basic Techniques and Rules Still life:

3.1 Still life

Still life is work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically common place, objects, which may be either natural (food, flower, plants, rocks, or shall) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes and so on) with origins in the middle ages and ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leave in a in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life paints, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two dimensional barrier and employs three dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound.

3.2 History of still life painting:

A. Antecedents:

Still life paintings often adorn the interior of ancient Egyptian Ambos. It was believed that food objects and other items depicted there world in the afterlife, become real and available for use by the deceased. Ancient Greek vase paintings also demonstrate great skill in depicting everyday objects and animals. Similar still life, more simply decorative in intent, but with realistic perspective has also been found in the Roman wall paintings and floor mosaics. Painting Still Life and Landscape Code 6410 Notes Chapter 6 AIOU.

B .Middle ages and Renaissance:

By 1300, starting with Giotto and his pupils, still life painting was revived in the form of fictional niches on religious wall paintings which depicted everyday objects. Through the middle ages and the Renaissance, still life in western art remained primarily an adjunct to Christian religious subjects and convened religious and allegorical meaning.

The development of oil painting technique by Jan van Eyck and other Northern European artists made it possible to paint everyday objects in this hyper realistic fashions owing to the slow drying , mixing, and layering qualities of oil color.

The 16th century witnessed an explosion of interest in the natural world and the creation of lavish botanical encyclopedias recording the discoveries of the new world and Asia. It also prompted the beginning of scientific illustration and the classification of specimens. Natural objects began to the appreciated as individuals objects of study apart from any religious or mythological associations.

C .Seventeenth century:

Even though Italian still life painting was gaining in popularity, it remained historically less respected than the “grand manner” painting of historical religious and mythic subjects. Prominent Academicians of the early 17th century, such as Andrea Sac chi, felt that genre and still life painting did not carry the “gravitas” merited for painting to be considered great. On the other hand, successful Italian still life artists found ample patronage in their day. Furthermore, women painters, few as they were commonly chose or were restricted to painting still life.

Still life developed as a separate category in the Netherlands in the last quarter of the 16th century and the English term derives from still even, still life, which is calque while romance languages lend to use terms meaning dead nature.

Still life painting give the artist full control over his subject provided the still life compositions, have been setup properly with a steady light source north facing window, or artificial lights and reflectors then at the artist is free to concentrate on rendering what he sees.

3.3Rules, techniques and their Application

3.3.1 Direction of light:

In western society, we read from left to right, and seem to read pictures the same way. So, when you paint a still life, it seems to work better if the light enters from the left and the right side is more shadowed. Also, the focal point should be in the right side of the picture.

3.3.2 Composition:

In still life grouping of items is a focal point but that would be an over simplification and a mistake that is often made by self-taught painters. There will be a small section that is emphasized as focal point.

Setting up a still life for painting is not a matter of throwing few objects onto a table top and the starting. For a successful still life, you want to put some thought.

One of the biggest mistakes that most amateurs make when they try to paint a still life is to casually setup their props and start to paint. They rarely spend any serious thought about the setup the lighting, the mood or concept they intend to convey.

3.3.3 Position of easel:

The ideal is for your still life and easel to be setup so you can see the objects and your canvas or paper without turning you head too much. The still life also wants to be at the right height for the viewpoint you are going to be painting. You don’t want to have to bend or move every time you are looking at the objects.

To ensure is that the composition is indeed how you want it. To make doubly sure, you may wish to draw careful sketches, since the effect of a painting is very different from simply looking at the subject source. Then you will properly want to analyze the tonal values and ensure you have a pleasing pattern of dark and light. Then come the color schemes, where you will work out the palette beforehand, either making oil sketches or at least lying out the main colors in a rough approximation to their arrangement in the final painting.

Now you will need to finalize the composition and check the lighting is correct. Many artists will not want to paint exactly what they see infect, probably won’t be able to unless aiming at photorealism but it is very difficult to paint anything that cannot be seen properly spend a good time on the setting up your still life compositions, therefore, it’s crucial.

3.3.4 Still life pencil drawing:

Still life is the best subject in art for learning and teaching the skills of drawing and painting. It teaches you how to look at objects and see them like an artist with a perceptive awareness of their outline, shape proportions, tone, color, texture form and composition.

I) Materials for still life lesson:

For this still life lesson you will need:

a. 2B pencil

b. An eraser

c. An A3 sheet of stiff cartridge paper, or a paper of similar quality, around 180 grams.

II) Starting the drawing:

In any still life you should start to draw the objects as if they are transparent wire frame forms with visible lines of construction. This technique helps you to be fully aware of the shape of each individual form and its position in relation to the other forms. It is important to sketch the objects lightly as this makes it easier to change any mistakes and erase any lines of construction.

III) Creating an interesting composition:

When composing a still life try to introduce the qualities that make an interesting arrangement. You need to be aware of the abstract structure of your arrangement. Its rhythms and contrasts of line, shape, tone, color, pattern, texture and form.

IV) Cleaning up the image:

Once you happy with the shape, proportion and composition of the still life, you can erase the lines of transparent construction. This will leave you with an accurate visible outline of each form and the confidence that all the objects are positioned correctly. You are now ready to work on the details of each object.

V) Adding the details in line:

Now lightly sketch in the shapes of any shadows or reflections onto each object.

Important points:

1. Still life is work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically common place, objects, which may be either natural or manmade.

2. In still life light enters from the left and the right side is more shadowed.

3. While setting still life consider serious thought about the setup the lighting, the mood or concept they intend to convey.

4. Still life is the best subject in art for learning and teaching the skills of drawing and painting.

Self-Assessment Questions.2

Q1.Answer the following questions in few lines.

I) Define the word Still Life as oldest type of painting.

II) Discuss the Dramatic effects of light in still life.

III) How can you explain “Renaissance age and Still life painting”?

Q2. Highlight the basic still life painting techniques and rules in detail.

4. Basic Techniques and Rules Landscape art:

Landscape art is term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountain, valleys, trees, rivers and forests, especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the compositions. Sky is almost always included in the view and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand year in both cases. Landscape photography has been very important since the 19th century, and is covered by its own article.

4.1 Definition of landscape:

The word landscape is from the Dutch, landscape originally meaning a patch of cultivated ground, and then an image, the word entered the English language at the start of the 17th century, purely as a term for works of art, and it was not used to describe real vistas before 1725. If the primary purpose of picture is to depict an actual, specific place, especially including buildings prominently, it is called a topographical view. Such views extremely common as prints are often seen as inferior to fine art landscapes, although the distinction is not always meaningful.

4.2 History of landscape:

The earliest forms of art around the world depict little that could really be called landscape, although ground lines and sometimes indications of mountains trees or other natural features are included. The earliest “pure landscapes” with no human figures are frescos from Minoan Greece of around 1500 BCE. Hunting scenes, especially those set in the enclosed vista of the read beds of the Nile Delta from Ancient Egypt, can give a strong sense of place, but the emphasis is on individual plant forms and human animal figures rather than the overall landscape setting. For a coherent depiction of a whole landscape, some rough system of perspective, or scaling distance, is needed and this seems from literary evidence to have first been developed in Ancient Greece in the Hellenistic period, although no longer-scale examples survive. More ancient Roman decorating rooms that have been preserved at Pompeii, Herculaneum and elsewhere and mosaics.

The Chinese ink painting tradition of Shan Sui (Mountain-water), or “pure” landscape in which the only sign of human life is usually a sage, or a glimpse of his hut, uses sophisticated landscape backgrounds to figure subjects, and landscape art of this period retains a classic and much-imitated status within the Chinese tradition.

Both the roman and Chinese traditions typically show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes, generally backed with a range of spectacular mountains – in China often with waterfalls and in Rome often including sea, lakes or rivers. These were frequently used, to bridge the gap between a foreground scene with figures and a distant panoramic vista, a persistent problem for landscape artists. The Chinese style generally showed only a distant view, or used dead ground or mist to avoid that difficulty.

A major contrast between landscape painting in the West and East Asia has been while in the West until the 19th century it occupied a low position in the accepted hierarchy of genres, in East Asia the classic Chinese mountain – water in painting was traditionally the most prestigious form of visual art. Aesthetic theories in both regions gave the highest status to the works seen to require the most imagination from the artist. In the West this was history painting, but in East Asia it was imaginary landscape, where the most famous practitioners were, at least in theory, amateur literati, including several emperors of both China and Japan. They were often also poets whose lines and images illustrated each other. However, in the west, history painting came to require an extensive landscape background where appropriate, so the theory did not entirely work against the development of landscape painting – for several centuries landscapes were regularly promoted to the status of history painting by the addition of small figures to make a narrative scene, typically religious or mythological.

4.3 Rules, Techniques of Landscape Painting:

A. General techniques.

Most early landscapes are clearly imaginary, although from very early on townscape views are clearly intended to represent actual cities, with varying depress of accuracy. Various techniques were used to simulate the randomness of natural forms in invented compositions: the medieval advice of Canine Canine to copy ragged crags from small rough rocks was apparently followed by both Poisson and Thomas Gainsborough, while Degas copied could forms from a crumpled hand kerchief held up against the light.

B. Color Techniques:

Adding color to a landscape design makes a plan come alive. It also communicates depth, texture and interest to a plan and helps the viewer to better visualize the finished landscape. The follow report reviews color palettes, explain various media available to the designer and presents tips for improving technique for using color in landscape designs.

The best method for adding color is to use a simple color palette for each project and emphasize only the essential elements within the design, leaving details to the imagination.

Over use of color may result in a gaudy plan that is too busy and detracts from the design itself. While surfaces in the foreground need to be correctly rendered, in the distance, these same materials will appear only as values. Even highly sunlight an eraser can become the best tool in eliminating extraneous details and adding highlights.

Definition of coloring terms:

1. Primary colors:

Red, yellow and blue from which all other colors may be mixed.

2. Secondary colors:

Orange, green and purple, made by mixing adjacent primary colors on the color wheel.

3. Tertiary colors:

Colors located between primary and secondary colors on the color wheel, created by mixing and adjacent primary and secondary color.

4. Hue:

The clearest form of any color, without the addition of black, white or its complement.

5. Chroma:

The intensity, strength or saturation of a color. The intensity of a hue can be reduced by its complementary for instance; the intensity of green can be reduced by adding red. The eventual result being a neutral gray.

6. Value:

The lightness or darkness of a color e.g. light or dark blue.

7. Shade:

A color darkened by adding black.

8. Tint:

A color lightened by adding white.

9. Complementary color:

Colors opposite each other on the color wheel. Mixing complementary colors will produce gray.

10. Monochromatic:

A color scheme using values of only one color. Sepia (reddish-brown) is a common choice in illustration.

11. Analogous:

A scheme using two or three adjacent color on the color wheel.


Yellow, yellow-green, green or blue, purple, violet. This scheme is equally useful in creating a simple palette for on illustration or a garden design.

12. Warm color:

Generally thought of as yellow, orange and red, which seem to advance toward the viewer? However, this distinction may also be made of blue and greens.


Ultramarine blue is warmer’ than cobalt blue Willow green is “Warmer” than sage and cadmium red is “Warmer” than carmine.

C. Direct painting techniques:

If your approach is direct painting, then some of these rules will helpful.

1. In composition, objects can either go across a shallow depth of field into the canvas.

2. Decide on center of interest. Don’t light all object equally.

3. Decide on the concept, e.g. movement through space give the object mass paint the shadows.

4. Everything has a distinctive shape. Get these in first and don’t lose them.

5. Start with your center of interest.

6. Remember that for objects to be lighted, the surface on which they rest also has to be lighted.

7. If the still life looks somewhat dull and monochrome, then add another color; try to complement.

8. Understand your subject. Decide what it is you want to bring out. Next how you will do it. Then paint that process.

9. The ground plane is important. Establish this early and work up from it.

10. Objects have a line of shadow beneath them, which is commonly the darkest in the picture.

Important points:

1. Landscape art is terms that cover the depiction of natural scenery such as mountain, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests.

2. The word landscape is from the Dutch, landscape originally meaning a patch of cultivated ground and then an image.

3. Colors communicate depth, texture and interest to a plan and help the viewer to better visualize the finished landscape.

Self-Assessment Questions 3

Q1. Answer the following Questions in few lines.

I) How can you define the “Landscape” as an important type of painting?

II) What are the differences among the Primary, Secondary, and tertiary colors?

III) Paint a color wheel.

Draw3 strips consist of 12 boxes (1`x1`inches) in which paint the lightest to darkest color tones of the primary

Q2. Write an essay on “Landscape history”.

Q3.As an art teacher enlists the general and specific techniques of landscape painting.

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