Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU

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Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU

Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU. The role of arts education in forming the competences for young people for life in the 21st century has been widely recognized through the world. Arts education develops creativity in students. A strong arts education promotes the skills children need to be successful.

Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU
Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU

Unit NO 4

Modern Methods of Art and Crafts


The role of arts education in forming the competencies for young people for life in the 21st century has been widely recognized through the world. Arts education develops creativity in students. A strong arts education promotes the skills children need to be successful. Exposure to art education promotes self-directed learning, improves school attendance and sharpens critical and creative skills. Arts education is one of the most important areas of child development. The objectives of art and crafts education can only be achieved if the teacher delivered the lessons in an effective manner. Keeping in view the importance of arts and crafts education this unit discusses the modern teaching methods of arts and crafts. These methods consists instruction. Inquiries, demonstration, free expression, creative expression and fixed topic method of teaching.

2. Objectives of the Unit:

After studying this unit you will be able to:

1. To explain the different methods of arts and crafts.

2. To identify the concept of demonstration method of arts and crafts.

3. To describe the usefulness of free expression method in arts and crafts.

4. To compare the creative method with the fixed topic method of arts and crafts teaching.

5. To explain the usefulness of inquiry method in teaching of arts and crafts.

3. Demonstration Method:

The word Demonstration has been derived from the Latin word” demo’ which means “to show”, so demonstration means teaching by showing the topic in practical shape to the students. In this method the teacher show the sample of arts or crafts to the students. After that she explains each dimension of the object that how the students make it, how the students precede the whole activity. After explaining in detail the whole object the teacher allow the students to start work. The students are allowed to ask questions whenever comes in their minds.

Demonstration method use the demonstration or “doing” method to teach skills. Demonstrate, step-by-step, the procedures in a arts and crafts tasks. Using. While demonstrating, explain the reason for and the significance of each step. To be effective, plan the demonstration so that you will be sure to show the steps in the proper sequence and to include all steps. If you give the demonstration before a large group or if the students might have trouble seeing because of the size of the equipment involved, use enlarged devices or teaching aids. When practical, allow students to repeat the procedure in a “hands on” practice session to reinforce the learning process. By immediately correcting the pupil’s mistakes and reinforcing proper procedures, you can help them learn the task more quickly. The direct demonstration approach is a very effective method of instruction, especially when learners have the opportunity to repeat the procedures

3.1. Techniques used in the demonstration method:

The basic method of instruction for teaching skill of arts and crafts subject matter, is the demonstration-performance method of instruction. This method is recommended for teaching skills in arts because it covers all the necessary steps in an effective learning order. The demonstration step gives learners the opportunity to see and hear the details related to the skill being taught. Those details include the necessary background knowledge, the steps or procedure, the nomenclature, and the safety precautions. The repetition step helps the average and slow learners and gives the learners an additional opportunity to see and hear the skill being taught. The performance step gives all trainees the opportunity to become proficient. In short, this method is recommended because it leaves nothing to chance. For convenience, the techniques for imparting skills are presented in steps, rather than activities. When setting up an instructional plan, understand that you don’t have to follow these steps in the sequence presented; instead choose the steps in the sequence best suited to the needs of the trainees. Although you will always include a demonstration step and a performance step, you must use judgment in selecting techniques to make the various steps effective.

3.2. General hints:

  • It is the duty of the teacher that makes every effort to get learner to observe correct procedures the first time they try a new task. Because in arts and crafts teaching the sequence in learning different steps of methods is very essential.
  • The most effective learning results when pupils use a skill immediately after you have taught it. So as soon as you teach trainees to do a job, have them practice the skill.
  • Teaching applicable safety precautions is especially important. Teach a safety precaution just before reaching the point in your demonstration where it applies. State the reason for the precaution so that the learner will understand the need for compliance.
  • Patience is a virtue for any petty learner. If it does not come naturally to you, you must train yourself to be patient. A slow learner may never acquire the knowledge or skill you are trying to impart if you are impatient. Avoid irony toward a bungler; that person may be trying harder than you suspect. Nothing exhausts the patience of the expert as much as the shuffle attempts of a beginner; however, the instructor must patiently demonstrate and explain until the trainee acquires the needed competence. “Good instruction” means a more effective crew, and such an asset justifies any amount of patience.
  • If you find that your learner have not learned what you tried to teach them, do not react as if they disobeyed orders. If students do not understand a certain lesson or operation, that could indicate a poor job of teaching. The old saying, “If the learner hasn’t learned, the teacher hasn’t taught” might apply in some situations.
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Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU 5

3.3. Related techniques to demonstration method:

You can use instructional techniques with any of the above methods. These techniques include the use of the lesson summary, oral questioning, and training aids. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

Lesson Summary:

The term summary as used here refers to that part of the lesson in which the instructor reviews the material covered. When summarizing, keep in mind two major aims. First, you want to help the trainees identify and organize the subject matter. Second, you want to assist the trainees in understanding and, where necessary, in memorizing the subject matter. Use the following techniques in summarizing a lesson:

1. Introduce the summary properly.

2. Summarize the subject matter thoroughly.

3. Plan the summary so that it assists the learners in organizing

3.4.Advantages of Demonstration method

1. It is the modern method of teaching

2. More suitable for arts and crafts subjects.

3. It is applicable on both higher and lower level of education.

4. It gains the attention of the students.

5. It motivates the students towards learning.

6. Students actively participate in teaching learning process.

3.5. Disadvantages of demonstration method:

1. It is expensive method of teaching.

2. It requires the expert teachers otherwise the students will get bore if it is not properly administered by the teacher.

3. If the object is not visible to the whole class than those students who are sitting on the back seats will lose their attention in the class. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

Important points

  • Demonstration means to show
  • Demonstration method is best to teach the skills
  • It gives the opportunity to the learner to see and hear the skills taught to them.
  • It is effective when the learner use the skills immediately after teaching that skill
  • Lesson summary, oral questioning and training aids are the techniques used in best demonstration method.

Exercise No 1

Select the correct answer

  1. Demonstration derived from the Latin word which means
  • To listen
  • To show
  • To do

2. The most effective results of learning through demonstration method is:

  • To practice the skill
  • To teach the skill

3. It is one of the most important technique of demonstration method

  • Lesson summary
  • Solving the questions
  • Memorization

Activity NO: 1

Visit to the near bye elementary school and observe the application of demonstration method of arts and crafts teaching. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

4. Inquiry Method:

This is a scientific method of teaching. In this method the teacher stimulate the minds of the students towards learning through inquiry and investigation. The students think, search and perform through a systematic and scientific way. That “inquiry is the way people learn when they’re left alone.” To Such man, inquiry is a natural way that human beings learn about their environment. Think for moment about a very young child left in a play yard with objects free to explore. The child, without any coaxing will begin to explore the objects by throwing, touching, pulling, banging them, and trying to take them apart. The child learns about the objects, and how they interact by exploring them, by developing his or her own ideas about them—in short learning about them by inquiry. Many authors have discussed the nature of inquiry and have used words such as inductive thinking, creative thinking, discovery learning, the scientific method and the like.

4.2. Steps of Inquiry Lessons:

Some teachers like to give their students data sheets, with room for hypotheses, and data tables ready to fill in, and questions to be answered. There is a sample of this kind of lesson the tracking lesson. Other kinds of inquiry are much more open-ended. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

The steps of inquiry lessons are:

1. Purpose:

The teacher tells the students what they will be learning about and tells them of the interesting implications of the lesson. For example, the teacher tells to the students about the purpose of making hands craft of Sindh in a particular class. The students will brain storm on the topic and will generate their ideas for giving a practical shape to that purpose, another example is, for tracking, a good tracker can tell the approximate size and weight of an animal s/he tracks from the tracks. The tracker has greater difficulty telling the age of the tracks, but there are clues to this as well. The students will learn, in this lesson, how to estimate size of an animal and perhaps even speed. Then they will try finding some animal tracks. For this lesson, there is no hypothesis for the students to come up with. (In some cases, the teacher will want the students to decide what they want to study. But there will still be a pedagogical purpose for the teacher to explain to the students.)

In a different case, for example testing the growth of a bean plant according to different variables, the students can hypothesize. The teacher would introduce the purpose of the activity as: to study the effect of light and gravity of the growth of a bean seed. The students would be asked to hypothesize about what effect gravity would have on a young bean plant? Do they think the plant would grow towards or away from the centre of the earth? What effect might light have on the growth of the bean plant?

2. Hypothesis:

In those activities where there will be a hypothesis, the students should always be expected to make their own hypotheses. This should be done in small groups (pairs), then in whole class discussion. Students should state their hypotheses in terms of the effect of one variable on another, and you must encourage them to justify their hypotheses. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

3. Procedure:

Once students have a clear idea of the purpose of the experiment or activity or study, they would have some idea of how to find the answer. Often, the discussion of different hypotheses will give those ideas for how to test their own hypothesis. Just because they have shown that their hypothesis might be true does not mean they have proved it. The alternative might still be a possibility. They have to rule on the other hypothesis as well as showing that their hypothesis works.

For example, there is a well-known activity, where a match is dropped into a bottle, and a peeled hard-boiled egg is placed on the spout of the bottle. When the match goes out, the egg pops into the bottle. This was explained to me as the result of oxygen being consumed by the flame. An alternative is that the match heated (causing expansion of) the air, which was able to escape past the egg out of the bottle. When the match went out, the air contracted again, and the egg was drawn into the bottle. A student’s procedure must test expansion and contraction without any oxygen being consumed, or test the consumption of oxygen without any expansion or contraction.

Such man proposed six rules or procedures that teachers have found helpful in conducting inquiry sessions. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

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Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU 6

4.3. Procedures for an Inquiry Session

Rule Procedure

Rule 1: Questions


The questions by the students should be phrased in such a way that they can be answered yes or no.

This Shifts the burden of thinking onto the students.

Rule 2: Freedom to ask questions


A student may ask as many questions as desired once they begin. This encouraged the student to use his

Or her previous questions to formulate new ones to pursue a reasonable theory.

Rule 3: Teacher response to statements of theory


When students suggest a theory, the teacher should refrain from evaluating it. The teacher might simply

Record the theory, or ask a question about the student’s theory. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

Rule 4: Testing theories


Students should be allowed to test their theories at any time.

Rule 5: Cooperation


Students should be encouraged to work in teams in order to confer and discuss their theories.

Rule 6: Experimenting


The teacher should provide materials, texts, reference books so that the students can explore their Ideas.


Once students know what they plan to do, they can make a list of the materials they will need. Sometimes it helps to tell them what materials are available before they design their procedure (one small way you can retain control!) However, often the materials they need can be brought from home. If students are testing different kinds of food for starch and fat, you would encourage them to bring some from home.

Encourage your students to write what they plan to do and to write a list of what materials they need. For those who prefer to draw, encourage them to do both. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.


Before students begin the experiment, remind them of all safety precautions. If they are working with chemicals, they should be wearing safety glasses. If they are working with Bunsen burners, they should have their hair tied back. Etc. Then they are to carry out their experiment or activity. Since they designed the procedure, they should know what data to collect. They should have a plan to record their data. For example if they are asked to compare the crafts of Baluchistan and Sindh, They will have to collect different handicrafts of the mentioned provinces then they will be able to compare them.


Again, students should know what they are trying to find. They might need assistance in steering away from their affirmation bias, however.

Many students have been seen that they test one bean against another, with bean A watered with vinegar (to simulate acid rain) and bean B watered with pure distilled water. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

When bean A thrives and bean B dies, the student will start another bean B and another, until one does well. This is not a fair test. The students need to be reminded that they should start with more than one of each bean plant, just in case one of them is a dud. And, it might turn out that vinegar is good for germination of bean seeds.


When your students have finished their study or experiment, they must discuss their results with one another. They must find out who had the same results, which had different results, why the results might have been different. They must interpret the results according to their original question. What do the results mean? The results will almost certainly lead to another question, and the process begins again.

Notice that the class discussion of the conclusion is the brief of the lesson. This is when the meaning of the lesson can be put into the context of the unit as a whole. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

4.4. Inquiry Activities:

Following are some examples of inquiry activities.

The Inquiry Box:

Of all the approaches to help students learn about inquiry, the inquiry box might be considered the universal strategy. The inquiry box can be made with a shoe box, and it should be painted black. For a classroom of students, you could prepare several inquiry boxes. Students are given the box, and asked to determine what the inside of the box is like. An inquiry box contains a marble, which is the main probe that the student can use to determine the pattern that exists within the box. You can prepare different patterns by taping pieces of cardboard in interesting and perplexing patterns.

The inquiry activity consists of having teams of students explore each inquiry box that you have prepared. The student’s theory consists of a diagram of the possible pattern in each box. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

The Wood Sinks and Floats Discrepant Event:

The teacher shows two blocks of wood, one much larger than the other. They are placed on an equal-arm balance and the results shows that the larger block is more massive than the smaller block. The blocks are then placed in container of water. The larger, more massive block floats, while the smaller and less massive ones sinks. This discrepant event leads to an inquiry into the following questions: Why did the lighter block sink and the heavier one float? Why do objects sink and float? Science principles that emerge include displacement, Archimedes’ principle, and pressure.

The Coin Drop and Throw:

The teacher places one coin (a quarter) on the edge of a table and holds another in the air next to it. At the same instant he flicks the quarter on the table so that it flies horizontally off the table, and drops the other quarter straight down. Both coins strike the floor at the same time. An inquiry about “Why do the coins strike the floor at the same time? ensues. Hint: practice this demonstration before you perform it with a group of students. Science principles that will emerge from this inquiry include vectors, universal gravitation, and Newton’s second law of motion.

The Double Pendulum:

The teacher places a long rod (meter stick) across the backs of two chairs. From the rod two simple pendulums of the same length are hung. One of the pendulums is started swinging. The other is allowed to hang straight down. In a few minutes the stationary pendulum begins swinging as the arc of the swinging pendulum decreases. The inquiry focuses on: Why does the second pendulum begin to swing? Why the arc of the first pendulum decrease? The science principles in this inquiry include periodic motion and conservation of energy.

The Balloon in Water:

A balloon is partially inflated, tied shut and tied to a heavy object (a rock). It is dropped into the bottom of a tall cylinder filled almost to the top with water. A rubber sheet is placed over the top of the cylinder and sealed with a rubber band. The teacher pushes on the rubber cover, and the balloon becomes slightly smaller. When the rubber cover is released, the balloon returns to its original size. The inquiry focuses on Why does the balloon become smaller and then larger again? Principles of science in this inquiry include pressure, gases, liquids and solids, and Newton’s first law of motion.

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Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU 7

4.5. Advantages of Inquiry Method:

1. It is a scientific way of teaching

2. Enhances students learning and scientific attitude.

4. Give new directions to the thinking of students.

5. Broaden the mental horizon of the students.

6. Most suitable to arts and crafts subject as it is a practical way of learning.

7. It motivates the students.

8. It is suitable to the students of multi-cultural class of different background.

9. It is a self-pacing learning for students.

10. It is the best way of developing creative thinking in students.

4.6. Disadvantages of Inquiry method:

1. It is a time consuming.

2. It is cost effective method of teaching.

3. Sometime the students feel bored if the topic is not of their interest.

4. The teacher is passive in this method of teaching.

Activity NO: 2

Inquire and collect famous crafts of four provinces of Pakistan.

Important points:

  • Inquiry method is a scientific way of learning
  • Inquiry method stimulates the minds of the students
  • Purpose of inquiry method means that the teacher tells to their students that what they are going to learn.
  • The rules involves in inquiry method are questions, freedom to ask questions, teacher response to statement of theory, testing theory, cooperation and experimenting.

Exercise No: 2

Choose the correct answer Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

1. The method which stimulates the minds of the students through investigation is called”

  • Lecture method
  • Inquiry method
  • Discussion method

2. The steps involve in inquiry method are:

  • Purpose and hypothesis
  • Purpose and goals
  • Cause and effect

3. Inquiry method of teaching is suitable to :

  • Lower level of learning
  • Higher level of learning
  • All levels of learning

5. Creative expression method:

Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new (a product, a solution, a work of art, a novel, a joke, etc.) that has some kind of value. What counts as “new” may be in reference to the individual creator, or to the society or domain within which the change occurs. What counts as “valuable” is similarly defined in a variety of ways. Similarly the creative method of teaching is that method in which the teacher gives the task to the students by showing or demonstrating some objects or things and tells the students that design or makes it according to your own thinking with some different creative addition in it.

5.1. Interest in creativity has a wide range and depends upon the following relationships:

1. The relationship between creativity and general intelligence;

2. The mental and neurological processes associated with creative activity;

3. The relationship between personality type and creative ability;

4. The relationship between creativity and mental health;

5. The potential for fostering creativity through education and training, especially as augmented by technology;

6. And the application of an individual’s existing creative resources to improve the effectiveness of learning processes and of the teaching processes tailored to them.

Ability to produce something new through imaginative skill, whether a new solution to a problem, a new method or device, or a new artistic objects or form. The term generally refers to a richness of ideas and originality of thinking. Psychological studies of highly creative people have shown that many have a strong interest in apparent disorder, contradiction, and imbalance, which seem to be perceived as challenges. Such individuals may possess an exceptionally deep, broad, and flexible awareness of themselves. Studies also show that intelligence has little correlation with creativity; thus, a highly intelligent person may not be very creative.

Example “Draw a Tree”

For example when the teacher tell to students that draw a tree. Each student will draw it according to his own mind. This shows the creativity of the students. This is an interesting exercise in late fall and early winter when the trees are stripped of their leaves so you can see the branches clearly. In other case the teacher can also bring the tree in the class and tell the students that you draw a tree with some innovations. The students will see the tree and will do brain storming for the innovative tree, some of them might draw the tree of spring season, some of them will draw autumn tree and some of them can draw tree filled with snow etc. This method enhances the creativity of the students especially in the field of arts and crafts.

5.2. Advantages of creative expression method:

1. It helps to develop the creative ability of the students.

2. It is an interesting way of teaching for students.

3. It brings innovative ideas to children minds.

4. T motivates the students for more learning.

5.3. Disadvantages of creative expression method:

1. It is cost effective method.

2. The teacher comes under burden of work load.

3. It is time consuming method of teaching.

4. It requires skill full teacher to handle the students in the class.

Read More:

Activity NO: 3

Search out different activities which can be applicable through creative expression method of teaching. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

6. Instruction method:

Instructions mean to guide or advice to someone in order to achieve the learning outcomes, it also means to provide information for the systematic learning procedure. Instruction method of teaching has great importance in teaching of arts and crafts. It is suitable at all level of education to teach arts and crafts to students. The teacher provides instructions about the activities of arts and crafts to the students and the students follow that instruction for performing of activities. There are various types of instructions which can be used for arts and crafts lessons, some of them are discuss below. The students need to focus on these types and think that how these types can be used for different types of arts and crafts activities.

6.1. Types of Instructions:

6.1.1. Direct Instructions:

Direct instruction is used to describe a lesson where the teacher has control on the method of teaching. Unfortunately, teachers and student teachers and students often mistake direct instruction for the only way to teach. Direct instruction is an instructional method from the Transmission paradigm, and is based on the learning theories of behaviorism and development.

In a direct instruction method the teacher usually spends some time lecturing; then the teacher guides the students through a complex problem, with the problem broken down into simple steps; then the students are given, one by one, the simple steps to carry out on their own; finally, the students are given one or many sample problems to accomplish on their own.

There are variations of direct instruction. A teacher might present a video tape of making any art and crafts, and the students are to watch the video. The teacher breaks this complex problem (interpreting the video) into simple steps by giving the students questions to answer during the tape. The teacher might guide the students through a reading in the same manner with questions to guide them. In each case, the timing of the lesson and the knowledge the student will construct are very much under the teacher’s control.

6.1.2. The advantages of direct instruction:

1. The teacher has control of the timing of the lesson.

2. Students are physically easy to monitor.

3. The teacher has control over what will be learned, and who will learn. If you want to reward the middle class students, this is the kind of teaching method to use.

4. The curriculum can be covered, so the teacher can say that s/he taught the material.

5. Some material should be taught this way! Any information for which there is one right answer, and for which that answer is relatively simple, can be taught efficiently and honestly by using direct instruction. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

6.1.3. Disadvantages of direct instruction:

  • It is based on old learning theories: that we must learn simple tasks before complex ones, and that only measurable learning is worthwhile.
  • Students do not have a sense of the overall purpose of the simple steps. However, if you tell them the purpose, by using advance organizers, this disadvantage is overcome.
  • Teachers cannot assess what the students’ prior knowledge is, so will be unaware of why particular students cannot learn.
  • Retention of how to solve the problems is low, because the students have not struggled with the problem themselves. This disadvantage can be overcome by having the students do many complex problems on their own. However, this means that one of the advantages (time efficiency) is lost.
  • Direct instruction as an instructional method works for only a small group of students, not for a great variety. The students who have other than verbal “intelligence”, or who come from different cultural world views will fail.

6.1.4. Tips for using direct instruction method effectively:

1. Choose a concept for which direct instruction is appropriate.

2. The students must know what is coming. Give them an advance organizer what they will be learning, in what order, and how much time each aspect will take.

3. Speak clearly, with a varied tone and speed. If you do not have a really interesting voice, use as little direct instruction as possible, or have speeches written out for your students, or use supplementary materials such as videos, etc.

4. Enhance what you are saying with visuals. Overheads or power point relieve the monotony of one person’s voice. Also, not all students are auditory learners.

5. Vary your lessons by not always speaking, but bring in activities, and other audio-visuals.

6. In any lesson longer than forty minutes, the students must have activities to do. Remember that for direct instruction, the activities are ones which start with simple tasks, and then the simple tasks are combined so the students can solve complex problems. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

7. Summarize what the students have learned.

8. Lastly, give the students some sort of assignment which you can then use to measure how much of the content they have learned that day.

1. An example of the kind of lesson you would want to use direct instruction for is teaching the students how to use a Bunsen burner. Early in the year, probably the first or second week of term, put a Bunsen burner on the demonstration desk. Each pair of students should have one in front of them. Indicate and name each part of the Bunsen burner, and have the students find that part on their Bunsen burners. Show them how to light the Bunsen burner safely (you don’t have to worry about them following along too closely, because they will just have free Bunsen burners not ones that are hooked up to gas) Turn the Bunsen burner off, carefully describing how this is done. Light the burner again, and turn it off again. Lastly, itemize the rules you have for them for using the Bunsen burner safely. (E.g.: Never strike a match if you can smell gas, never point a loaded test tube anywhere except at the wall, etc.)

2. Next, the students take their Bunsen burners to the gas outlets, plug them in, and then practice lighting them and getting a good flame.

3. Lastly, give them a quiz or some sort of assignment to assess their learning. You might have them sketch the Bunsen burner, labeling the parts; you might have them do a fast write of safety rules, etc.

This is an appropriate use of direct instruction. We certainly do not want students playing around with Bunsen burners to learn how to use them! They must know how to use them correctly before they light them the first time. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

1. Evaluating Instructions:

Gather together your collection of instructions, and share them with the children. Ask them to read the instructions and discuss what they are for. They should also evaluate the instructions in terms of ease of use (Are the instructions clear? Would you be able to follow them to achieve the desired outcome?) And presentation (Are the instructions presented well? Is the chosen presentation appropriate? Would you prefer more diagrams or more text?).

2) Adapting Instructions:

The children could try and rewrite some of the instructions for other children in the school. The children would have to choose appropriate vocabulary for the level of the intended audience. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

3) Sequencing Instructions:

Before the lesson, you will need to find suitable instructions, and cut these into sections (you might need to retype some of them). Jumble up the sections, and ask the children to put them into the correct order. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

A similar sequencing activity can be found here.

4) George’s Marvelous Medicine:

After reading this story by Roald Dahl, the children could create some instructions showing how to make the medicine. In the story, George makes four different medicines, so the class could make instructions for one, or for all four (comparing them to see what why the last three did not have the same effect as the original).

5) Making Instructions:

The children could choose a topic that they were interested in, and make a set of instructions relating to that topic. For example, if they were interested in animals, they could make some instructions showing how to care for animals properly. If they liked computers, they could explain how to play their favorite computer game. This activity might require some time beforehand for the children to find out more information about their topic. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

6) Making More Instructions:

This activity links with Design and Technology. If the children have just designed and made a project, they could write some instructions telling others how to make their project, or how to use it properly. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

7) Storyboard Instructions:

The children can make their instructions using the storyboard format found here (on the R.E. pages). This will encourage them to use text and pictures in their instructions, and to break their instructions down into a number of small steps.

8) Suggested by Susan:

I like to have my 4th graders work in teams to write directions on how to get to certain places in the building like the gym, the nurse, last year’s classroom etc. I let them go around the building one team at a time. Then they give their directions to another team to follow exactly as they wrote them (even though they know how to get to the places!). They report back as to where they ended up. It really emphasizes the need for specific directions. I like to do this as the opening activity so they are focused on giving the best details they can when they write their own instructions.

6.1.5. Advantages of Instruction method:

1. It provides correct guidance to the students as the guidance is coming from the teacher.

2. The chances of errors on the part of students become minimize.

3. Students interest increase as the teacher’s directions are valuable for students.

4. Students get more knowledge from the teacher instructions.

6.1.6. Disadvantages of instruction method:

1. The students’ role is passive.

2. Students usually hesitate to ask the questions from the teacher as the teacher role is dominant.

3. Analytical skill of the students effects as they are receiving instructions from the teacher.

4. The teaching process goes according to the teacher’s directions so the teacher’s work load increase. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

Important points:

  • Instructions mean to guide or advice to someone in order to achieve the learning outcomes.
  • In Direct instruction the teacher has control on the method of teaching.
  • In Direct instruction Students are physically easy to monitor
  • In this method the curriculum can be covered.
  • In Evaluating Instructions the teacher checks what the students have leaned.
  • In Adapting Instructions the children try to rewrite some instructions for the class fellows.
  • To divide the instructions into different sequential parts is called Sequencing Instructions.

Exercise No: 3

1. Write the difference between evaluative instructions and sequential instructions.

2. What does mean by instructions?

3. Enlist the tips use for effective instructions.

7. Free expression method:

This method suggests that the work of the children is spontaneous, natural and originate with them from divergent thinking process. So the children should be given free chance of expressing their ideas either in form of drawing, crafts or arts. For example the teacher tells to the students that draw whatever comes in your mind about your class or teacher etc. The students will express their ideas or image which is their in their minds. This method helps the students to express their selves, this also strengthen their mental process and creative abilities.

This method is not teacher dominated; it is concern with the pupil’s genius ideas and personal mode of expression. Advocates of this method say that with growth and development are the chief virtues of this method because with the growth and development new ideas and point of views are occurring in the minds of the individuals, This method has very few limitations. The advocates of this method say that “let the child express him”. “Do not restrain him”, “do not interfere, allow maximum latitude”. These and similar phases are the stock in trade of the followers of this approach to teaching.

Apparently it seems as a most defensible method; but when examined in the light of its own past history and achievements, its fallacies appears. But it is up to the efficiency and ability of the teacher that how he or she carries out this method for teaching. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

7.1. Advantages of free expression method:

1. It develops confidence in students for expression of their point of view.

2. It provides a chance to the students to express their ideas in form of arts and crafts.

3. It develops creativity in the students.

4. It motivates the students as they are expressing their selves through this method.

5. It is the most suitable method of teaching at primary level as it develops the creative minds of students.

7.2. Disadvantages of free expression method:

1. Sometime the teacher interference affects the motivation level of the students.

2. Teacher’s guidance is all the time with the students in this method so we cannot say that it’s free expression method completely.

3. There are the chances that the students misuse this method and do not express themselves creatively.

4. It is difficult for teacher to manage the whole class working on different sides of their own.

5. It is time consuming method of teaching and not suitable for all the topics.

Activity NO: 4

Practice the usefulness of free expression method of teaching arts and crafts on children at your home by giving them any topic.

8. Fixed Topic Method:

Fixed topic method is a new method of teaching arts and crafts. This is the most suitable method of teaching arts, crafts and calligraphy to the students. In this method the students are given specific topic and then they write on that topic. This method has different steps which are discuss below. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

Selection of topic

In fixed topic method the selection of topic is the most essential phase. The topic can be selected either by teacher or with the mutual consent of the students also. At higher level the students are consult by the teacher for the selection of the topic, the teacher consider the interest of the students. While at lower level mostly the teacher himself choose the topic for teaching. In arts and crafts teaching the students are given some fixed activity and they are bound to follow that.

Discussion on the topic

After selection of the topic the teacher allow the students to ask the questions. The students clear their concepts about the topic. They share their ideas with each other. Discussion broadens their knowledge about the topic and gives new directions to their thinking. Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

Performing the activity

After discussion the students are able to perform the activity assigned by the teacher on the fixed topic. This is the practical stage of the fixed topic method of teaching. Here the students make a piece of arts and crafts which is fixed by the teacher in class. In this method the students do not have any freedom to perform arts or crafts by their own rather they are bound to follow the teacher.

8.1. Advantages of fixed topic method:

1. This method avoids the errors on the part of the students as the topic is selected by the teacher therefore the chances of errors are minimized.

2. The students are not under burden.

3. The discussion on the topic provides clarity of the concepts.

8.2. Disadvantages of the method:

1. It deprives the students from their freedom of choice.

2. It restricts the students’ knowledge to a specific topic.

3. It is not suitable for teaching of all subjects.

4. It put ban on the creativity of the students by restricting their minds to a particular area.

Important points

  • Free expression method suggests that the work of the children originate with them from divergent thinking process.
  • The children are given free chance to express their ideas.
  • It developed the mental abilities of the children.
  • In fixed method of teaching the student are bound to discuss only the given topic under given instructions.
  • The fixed topic method has different phases such as selection of the topic, discussion on the topic and performing the activity.

Exercise No: 4

1. What are the advantages of free expression method?

2. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of fixed method of teaching.

Answers key

Exercise No 1

(1) To show

(2) To practice the skill

(3) Lesson summary

Exercise No 2

(1) Inquiry method

(2) Purpose and hypothesis

(3) All levels of learning


1. Explain the demonstration method of teaching arts and crafts?

2. Identify the salient features of inquiry method of arts and crafts?

3. Discuss the usefulness of creative expression method of arts and crafts?

4. What is the fixed topic method of teaching arts and crafts? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method?

5. Describe the different types of instructions of teaching arts and crafts?

Modern Methods of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 4 AIOU.

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