English Notes for Class 10th Free Download

English Notes for Class 10th Free Download

English Notes for Class 10th Free Download. English notes of 10th class PDF are published here on this page. These notes are in PDF and are free to download. Students of all Boards of Punjab can benefit from these notes. Here are the tenth grade English category notes. You can click on a category to download notes for this category.

English Notes for Class 10th Free Download
English Notes for Class 10th Free Download

UNIT:1.

Simplicity and Humility of Hazrat Muhammad (SAW)

Q;1. What is meant by simplicity and humility?

Ans. Simplicity means to be plain and easy in form and approach. It is freedom from ornament, luxury and extravagance. Humility is the lack of pride and vanity to behave nicely and speak in a low tone.

Q;2. Describe in a few sentences, the life style of Hazrat Muhammad (SAW).

Ans. Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) led a very simple and humble life. He (SAW) wore simple clean dress. He (SAW) milked his goats. He (SAW) mended his own shoes. He (SAW) helped his wives in household work. He (SAW) treated the rich and the poor alike. He (SAW) never took any revenge. He (SAW) always forgave his enemies. He (SAW) was a true symbol of mercy, kindness and affection.

Q3. How can simplicity and humility do away with the culture of extravagance and waste?

Ans. The culture of extravagance and waste is artificial and full of problems. Simplicity and humility can remove this culture. The Sunnah of simplicity and humility saves us a lot of time, money and energy. They provide a lot of mental relief and minimize class difference. The money can be used for the welfare of society.

Q4. Write down the main idea and supporting details of the last paragraph of the lesson “Simplicity and Humility of Hazrat Muhammad (SAW).

Ans. The main idea of the paragraph is that simplicity and humility are the Sunnah of our Holy Nabi (SAW). They have the power to eradicate many social evils like pride and superiority over others. They provide true happiness and true respect in society

Q5. How did Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) treat his foster sister?

Ans. Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) was very kind and humble. Whenever his foster sister would come to meet him, He (SAW) would always stand up for her and would spread his sheet for her.

Unit: 2

THE CHAMPIONS

Q.1 what is the significance of the title “The Champions”?

Ans. The Word “champion” means a person who surpasses all rivals in a competitiOn. The title “The Champions” is very significant because the story is about a boxing contest in which the winner will be declared the champion. He will then represent his country in World Lightweight Boxing Championship.

Q.2 what was the dream of Ahmad Ali and Gul Sher?

Atzs The dream of Ahmad Ali and Gul Sher was to become lightweight boxing champions of the world. Both Ali and Gul Sher were fast friends. In order to make their dream true, they worked very hard. They joined a boxing club where they used to go daily.

Q.3 Why was the fight so important for both All and GU1 Sher?

Ans. The fight was so important for both Ali and Gul Sher because the winner was to represent his country in World Lightweight Boxing Championship. The fight was scheduled to be held on 14th August. Knowing the importance of the light, both Ali and Gul Sher tried very hard to win the title.

Q.4 how did the two friends fight? Describe in your own words in five sentences.

Ans. The two friends climbed into the ring and bowed gracefully before the audience. They did not fight like friends, but strangers. During the fight, both took some heavy blows and sustained damage. They threw punches at each other from eve.), direction. At the end of the final round, they fought so intently that the referee had to put them apart.

Q.5 Compare and contrast the character of all and Gul.

Ans. Both Ali and Gul are good boxers. They are best friends also. Ali is from Sheedi family while Gul is from a Pakhtun family. Ali is the better slugger. while Gul is the better boxer. Each has a keen desire to become a Lightweight Boxing Champion. In order to achieve this goal, they work very hard.

Q.6 Is there any conflict in the story? If yes, describe in detail.

Ans. Yes, there is a Conflict in the story. The conflict is between two best friends who are like brothers. The conflict occurs when they have to compete each other to become lightweight champion. The conflict creates distance between them. The conflict gets stronger as the day of the fight comes closer.

Q.7 what was the effect of the fight on the relationship of the two friends?

Ans. ‘ Before the announcement of the fight, Ali and Gul were fast friends. When the date for the fight was announced, rivalry started to create between them. Each had a keen desire to win the fight. For this purpose, they fought like animals. But towards the end of the fight, they realized that the fight was hurting their friendship. So they embraced each other and left the fight undecided.

Q.8 keeping in view the relationship of the two friends, is it easier or harder for them to fight each other? Support your answer by giving references from the text.

Ans. Ali and Gul. are close friends. They run and attend the boxing club together. In order to become lightweight champion, they have to fight each other. They are so close to each other that it, seems very hard for them to fight. They agree that they will fight each other as opponents but the fight won’t affect their friendship. That is why the fight remains undecided.

Q.9 Are you satisfied with the ending? Support your response with cogent arguments?

Ans. Yes, I am satisfied with the ending. All and Gul were fast friends. A stage comes when the two friends have to choose between their friendship and the competition. They agree that they will fight for the championship but the fight will not get in the way of the friendship. When they enter the ring, they fight so savagely that their friendship is at stake. But at the end they embrace each other and leave the ring.

UNIT;3

DREAMS

By Langston Hughes

Q1. What is the theme of the poem ‘Dreams’?

Ans. Theme of the poem is that you must have an ambition in life and you should stick fast to it. You must have some hope and you should never let this hope down. No hope makes life dull and meaningless.

Q2. How important do you think dreams are? Explain.

Ans. Dreams are important in life. They make life colourful and meaningful. Dreams are a source of hope and motivation. If dreams die, life becomes dull and meaningless.

Q3. Identify an example of a word or phrase that is repeated in the poem and explain why the poet makes this repetition?

Ans. “Hold fast to dreams” is repeated twice in the poem. It is repeated for the importance of dreams. We should keep dreams healthy and alive in our lives. They provide meaning and colour to life. Without dreams, life becomes dull and meaningless.

Q4. Identify an example of personification. Explain what is being personified and why?

Ans. Life without dreams is being personified as a bird with broken wings that cannot fly because life without dreams is dull and meaningless.

Q5. Identify lines containing metaphors. What ideas are being conveyed by these metaphors?

Ans. These lines contain metaphors.

Life is a broken winged bird.

Life is a barren field frozen with snow.

They convey the idea that a bird with broken wings and a barren field frozen with snow is of no use and worthless, so a life without dreams and ambition is of little value.

Q6. List the alliterative words from the poem “dreams”.

Ans. Alliteration means the repetition of consonants at the beginning of two or more words succeeding each other. Alliterative words in the poem are “dreams die” and “broken-winged bird”.

Q7. How is imagery used in this poem?

Ans. There are two examples of imagery in the poem. First, Imagery is used in the form of a bird with broken wings that cannot fly. Second imagery is in the form of a barren field frozen with snow.

Q8. How is the mood of the poet? How does it make you feel?

Ans. The poet is in optimistic mood. He wants us to remain hopeful in life. We should never let our spirits down. We should always have some dreams before us for motivation to do something good.

UNIT;3.

DREAMS

Stanza1

Hold fast to dreams

For if dreams die

Life is a broken winged bird

That cannot fly.

Paraphrase;

A person should stick to his dreams. He should not let them die because after their death life is like a bird with broken wings that cannot fly. A person should stick fast to some ambition in life. Life without any purpose or ambition becomes dull, worthless and motionless

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What is the message in the stanza?

Ans. The message in the stanza is that a person should keep some ambition in his life.

Q2. What happens when dreams die?

Ans. When dreams die, life becomes a broken winged bird. Then life has no motivation.

Q3. What is meant by “Hold fast to dreams?”

Ans. It means that we should always have some ambition in our lives.

Q4. Why should we hold fast to dreams?

Ans. We should hold fast to dreams because they are a source of hope and motivation.

Q5. What does “Broken winged bird” mean?

Ans. It means life without any ambition is a motionless life.

Q6. Identify personification in the stanza.

Ans. There are two personifications in the stanza.

  1. Dreams are personified as they can die like humans.
  2. Life is personified as a bird with broken wings that cannot fly.

Q7. How does life become a broken winged bird?

Ans. Life becomes a broken winged bird without dreams.

Stanza2.

Hold fast to dreams

For when dreams go

Life is a barren field

Frozen with snow.

Paraphrase.

A person should stick to his dreams because when dreams leave, they make life like a barren field, which is covered with snow. A person should stick fast to some ambition in life because without any ambition life becomes worthless and meaningless.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What is meant by “Hold fast to dreams?”

Ans. It means that ambition of life should always be in our minds.

Q2. What happens when dreams leave us? Or

How life becomes a barren field?

Ans. When dreams leave us and we have no ambition, then life becomes a barren field covered with snow.

Q3. Why should we hold fast to dreams?

Ans. We should hold fast to dreams because life becomes barren without them.

Q4. What is meant by “a barren field?”

Ans. A barren field means a field that cannot produce anything.

Q5. Identify personification in the stanza.

Ans. Dreams are personified as they can go from a person.

Q6. Identify metaphor in the stanza.

Ans. “Life is a barren field” is a metaphor in the stanza. Life is compared with a barren field.

Q7. Write the name of the poem and the poet.

Ans. The poem name is “Dreams” and the poet is Langston Hughes.

Unit: 4

POPULATION GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT

Q.1 Why is there no single and easy solution to the problem of population growth and its impact on environment?

Ans. There is no single and easy solution to the problem of population growth and its impact on- environment because it is a very serious and severe problem. To find the solution of the problem, we should act upon many techniques. The people should be educated to know about the impact of population growth on environment. Secondly, the consumption patterns should be reassessed. Thirdly, the amount of resources, that we consume, should be reduced.

Q.2 how is the carrying capacity of the earth affected?

Ans. Carrying capacity means the number of individuals who are supported in a given area without environmental degradation. The carrying capacity of the earth is Affected by increase in population. Increase in’ the human population puts pressure on the natural resources that we rely on for survival. Moreover, population and natural disasters like flood etc. also affect the carrying capacity of the earth.

Q.3 why does population growth directly affect the environment?

Ans. Population growth has a ‘direct effect on the environment. As the population increases, the earth’s resources decrease. In many countries, the shortage of food leads to deforestation. In these countries the need for food is so great that natural trees are destroyed in order to make agricultural lands there.

Q.4 Locate examples from the text ‘Population Growth and its Impact on Environment’ that support an opinion.

Ans. The following examples from the text ‘Population Growth and its Impact on Environment’ support an opinion.

(i)            It is estimated that world’s population will reach 9.2 billion by 2050.

(ii)           This unchecked population growth may result in environmental catastrophe.

(iii)          Deforestation. Can lead to several imbalances in environment and decrease in habitat and biodiversity.

•              (iv) In view of ‘scientists, the figure ranges from 500 million to more than one trillion.

Q.5 Keeping in view the population and the environment of your area, do you agree or not with the content of the lesson? Support your view with solid arguments.

Ans. keeping in views the population and the environment of my area, I totally agree with the content of the lesson. The population of my area is increasing day by day. Cultivable land is replaced by houses, shops, markets and industries. The area where I live in is very much congested. The smoke that -comes out of motorcycles, rickshaws and cars etc. is common in my area.

UNIT.5

THE GREAT MASJID OF CARDOBA AND IQBAL

Q1. Where did Abdur Rahman 1 import fruit and other plants from? Why?

Ans. Abdur Rahman 1 imported fruit and other plants from his former home because he wanted to promote agriculture and recreate the glory and grandeur of Damascus, the capital of the Islamic state.

Q2. What can we achieve again if we enkindle in ourselves the master passion (Ishq)?

Ans. If we enkindle in ourselves this master passion ‘Ishq’, we can achieve our former glory, noble ideals and exalted state of moral and spiritual character. We can create the finest work of art or some other great thing in our life.

Q3. What is the view of Iqbal about the Masjid of Cardoba? Explain his view in your own words.

Ans. Iqbal was very much moved to see the beauty and grand structure of Masjid Qurtaba. He considers it a masterpiece of art that bears eternal beauty and charm. He dedicated this beauty to the master passion Ishq of a Mard-e-Khuda having exalted state of moral and spiritual character.

Q4. What, in your opinion, is the significance of the Masjid of Cordoba to the present day Muslims? Explain.

Ans. Masjid Qurtaba is a symbol of the past glory of Muslims. This grand Masjid invites Muslims of the present day to enkindle the master passion Ishq in them. They must learn from the dignity of their ancestors. If they have exalted state of moral and spiritual character, they can also achieve great things in their life.

Q5. Why did Iqbal appreciate a faraway Masjid in Spain, when there were superb buildings of the Muslim era in the Sub-Continent?

Ans. Iqbal appreciated a faraway Masjid in Spain because of its historical significance. This Masjid is historically older than the superb buildings of the Muslim era in the Sub-Continent. Iqbal appreciates the past and lost glory of Muslims in Europe.

UNIT :6

IN SPITE OF WAR

Q1. What are the things that thrive despite the ravages of war?

Ans. Blooming lilacs, tripping tulips, encouraging morning glory, rejoicing daisy, divine pansies, romping clouds, flashing waves, garden of roses, sparkling poppies, silver lilies and the whispers of hope are the things that thrive despite the ravages of war.

Q2. What are some of the different words and images used in the poem that convey the emotion of loss?

Ans. War, death, sufferings, hate, wrath, despair, roaring guns, booming cannons, burning, shame and nightmare are some of the words and images that convey the emotions of loss.

Q3. Identify two examples of personification: explain what is being personified and how in each example?

Ans. The two examples of personifications are the following.

Morning glory has been personified that it can say the word ‘Courage’ like humans.

Daisy has been personified that it can say the word ‘Rejoice’ like humans.

Flashing waves are personified that they call back the poetess like a human being.

Q4. Make a list of the words that tell you about the tone of the poem ‘In spite of war’ and explain how those words tell us what the tone is. Use examples from the poem to back up your reasoning.

Ans. The poem is a mixture of optimism and pessimism at the same time. Words of optimism are laughs, sings, praise, blooming, courage, rejoice, divine, wake, born, look, glory, light, torch and ecstasy. Words of pessimism are war, death, sufferings, hate, wrath, despair, roaring guns, booming cannon, burnings, shame and nightmare.

Q5. What is the theme of the poem ‘In spite of war’?

Ans. The theme of the poem is to remain hopeful and think positive in times of war or other mishap. If we have negative things around us, yet there are positive and refreshing things that makes life beautiful and worthy to live.

UNIT: 6

IN SPITE OF WAR

Stanza 1:

In spite of war, in spite of death

in spite of all man’s sufferings

Something within me laughs and sings And I must praise with all my breath

Paraphrase

War brings deaths and sufferings upon people. In spite of war, its deaths and sufferings there are certain things in life that make me laughs and make me sing. I must admire all those things whole-heartedly to forget the negative aspects of life.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What are the consequences of war?

Ans. Wars bring deaths and sufferings upon all people.

Q2. How is the mood of the poet?

Ans. The poet is in positive mood in spite of war and deaths.

Q3. What show us that poet is happy or positive?

Ans. The poet says that something laughs and sings to her.

Q4. What words in the stanza show the emotions of loss?

Ans. War, death and sufferings show the emotions of loss.

Q5. What is the tone of the stanza?

Ans. Stanza is in optimistic tone in spite of war, deaths and sufferings.

Q6. What are the things that thrive despite the ravages of war?

Ans. Laughs and songs can thrive despite the ravages of war.

Q7. What shall we do in spite of war?

Ans. We shall praise the things that make us laugh and sing in spite of war.

Stanza 2:

In spite of war, in spite of hate

Lilacs are blooming at my gate

Tulips are tripping down the path

In spite of war, in spite of wrath

Paraphrase: War brings hate along with it. In spite of war and hatred lilac flowers bloom at the gate of my house. The pathways are full of tulips. In spite of the fact that there is war and there is anger in it, yet there is beauty around me to make me happy

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What are the things that thrive despite the ravages of war?

Ans. Blooming lilacs and tripping tulips thrive despite the ravages of war.

Q2. Where are the lilacs blooming?

Ans. Lilacs are blooming at the gate of the poet.

Q3. Where are the tulips tripping?

Ans. Tulips are tripping down the path

Q4. What do wars bring with it?

Ans. Wars bring hatred and anger with it.

Q5. Describe the images in the stanza.

Ans. Lilacs at the gate and tulips on the path are the images in the stanza

Q6. What does the word ‘tripping’ mean?

Ans. Tripping means falling over in motion.

Q7. Which flowers are tripping down the path?

Ans. Tulips are tripping down the path.

Stanza 3:

“Courage!” the morning glory saith;

“Rejoice!” the daisy murmureth

And just to live is so divine

When pansies lift their eyes to mine

Paraphrase:

I have the company of some beautiful natural friends. They are a source of peace and happiness for me. Morning glory encourages me. Daisy rejoices me in a low tone and it is great to look at pansies flowers.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What does the morning glory say?

Ans. The morning glory says take courage.

Q2. What does the daisy murmur?

Ans. The daisy murmurs rejoice.

Q3. Who lift their eyes?

Ans. Pansies lift their eyes.

Q4. To whom pansies lift their eyes?

Ans. Pansies lift their eyes to the poet.

Q5. Identify personification in the stanza.

Ans. morning glory and daisy are personified as they can speak like humans. Pansies are personified because they can lift their eyes.

Q6. What happens when pansies lift their eyes?

Ans. It gives divine feeling to the poet.

Q7. Name the flowers mention in this stanza.

Ans. Morning glory, daisy and pansies are mentioned in this stanza.

Q8. What is meant by “when pansies lift their eyes”?

Ans. It means when pansies open their petals.

Q9. What is the example of onomatopoeia in this stanza?

Ans. Murmur is the example of onomatopoeia in this stanza.

Stanza 4

The clouds are romping with the sea,

And flashing waves call back to me

That naught is real but what is fair,

That everywhere and everywhere

A glory live the through despair

Paraphrase

The clouds are playing with the sea. The waves of the sea flash in the sunlight call me to visit them again. Nothing is real in this world but then there is a fair thing that we can see everywhere in the world and that there is glory in spite of so much despair.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What are the clouds doing?

Ans. Clouds are playing with the sea.

Q2. What are the waves doing?

Ans. Waves are calling the poet back.

Q3. What do you mean by ‘that naught is real’?

Ans. That naught is real means nothing is real in this world.

Q4. What happens everywhere?

Ans. Everywhere glory lives through despair.

Q5. Identify personification in the stanza.

Ans. Clouds are personified as they play with the sea like children. Waves are personified as they call the poet back like humans.

Stanza 5:

Though guns may roar and cannon boom

Roses are born and gardens bloom;

My spirit still may light its flame

At that same torch whence poppies came

Paraphrase:

In spite of roaring guns and booming cannons that bring disaster and destruction all over the place, birth of flowers result in full blooming gardens. My soul will receive and reflect the same light that comes from poppies

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What signs of war are given in this stanza?

Ans. Roaring guns and booming cannons are the signs of war in the stanza

Q2. What are the things that thrive despite the ravages of war?

Ans. Roses, blooming gardens and poppies can thrive despite the ravages of war.

Q3. How does the poet feel?

Ans. The poet feels the same light that comes from the poppies.

Q4. What are the examples of onomatopoeia in this stanza?

Ans. Roar and boom are the examples of onomatopoeia in this stanza.

Q5. Which words in the stanza show optimism?

Ans. Roses, blooming gardens and poppies show optimism in the stanza.

Q6. Which words in the stanza show destruction and pessimism?

Ans. Roaring guns and booming cannons show destruction and pessimism.

Stanza 6:

Where morning’s altar whitely burns

Lilies may lift their silver urns

In spite of war, in spite of shame

Paraphrase: Altars may throw white flames at morning time. Lilies can smile by opening their silver petals. In spite of the fact that there is war and it brings shame on humanity

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What happens at the altar?

Ans. Altar burns whitely due to the sacrifices of people.

Q2. What are the lilies doing?

Ans. Lilies lift their silver urns.

Q3. What do you mean by silver urns?

Ans. Silver urns mean blooming petals of lilies.

Q4. Which words in the stanza show optimism?

Ans. Morning’s altar and lilies with silver urns show optimism.

Q5. Which words in the stanza show destruction and pessimism?

Ans. War shows destruction and shame shows pessimism.

Stanza 7

And in my ear a whispering breath

Wake from the nightmare! Look and see

That life is naught but ecstasy

In spite of war, in spite of death.

Paraphrase:

I hear a soft voice in my ear as if someone is taking me out of the nightmare. The voice asks me to wake up, look around and see that life is the name of intense pleasure and is full of emotions. In spite of the fact that there is war and it brings deaths and destruction.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What happens to the poet?

Ans. someone whispers in her ear.

Q2. What does the whisper ask her to do?

Ans. The whisper asks her to wake up from the nightmare.

Q3. What is the poet’s opinion about life?

Ans. According to the poet life is nothing but ecstasy.

Q4. What are the words that show optimism in the stanza?

Ans. Look, see, wake up and ecstasy are the words that show optimism.

Q5. What are the words that show pessimism in the stanza?

Ans. War and death show pessimism in the stanza.

Q6. “Life is naught but ecstasy.” Explain.

Ans. It means life is nothing but intense pleasure.

Q7. Write the name of the poet and the poem.

Ans. The poem is “In spite of war” written by Angela Morgan.

UNIT: 7

THE AGED MOTHER

Q1. Why did the farmer decide to take his mother on the summit?

Ans. The farmer decided to take his mother on the summit because the despotic leader of the town ordered them to put to death all the aged people of the town at once. Summit was the place where they had to leave their old people to die.

Q2. Why did the son hide her mother in the closet?

Ans. He hid her mother in the closet because he loved her so much. He wanted to keep her alive. He did not want to kill her and wanted to keep her away from the eyes of the despotic leader and his men.

Q3. What does the phrase ‘with the crown of snow, there cometh wisdom’ mean?

Ans. It means that wisdom comes with the passage of time. When a person gets older, he learns from the experiences of life and gets a lot of wisdom. Every passing moment increases his wisdom.

Q4. What is the theme of the aged mother?

Ans. The theme of the aged mother is that we should respect and take great care of the old age people. We should take benefits from their wisdom. They are a source of guideline for us. We should not think them as useless and a burden upon earth.

Q5. What is the climax of the story ‘The Aged Mother’?

Ans. The climax starts from the point when her mother’s kindness moves the farmer and he decides not to abandon her alone to die on the summit. He takes her back to his house.

Q6. Why did the farmer disclose his secret?

Ans. The farmer disclosed his secret because he wanted to tell the truth. He wanted to disclose the wisdom, kindness, love and importance of the old age people. He wanted to inform his leader that wisdom is needed along with the strength.

Q7. What are the elements of the story ‘The Aged Mother’?

Ans. The elements of the story are plot, setting, characters and story.

Q8. What is the setting of the story?

Ans. The setting of the story is that of a town and mountainous area.

Q9. Why did the leader issue the proclamation?

Ans. The leader issued the proclamation because he was a coward and afraid of anything that weakens the strength. He thought the old people as a source of weakness that would affect the strength of the youth of the town.

Q10. How does the poor youth feel about the proclamation?

Ans. The proclamation filled his heart with sorrow and terror because he had immense love and affection for his mother. He did not want to lose his mother.

Q11. How did the youth carry out the order?

Ans. The youth carried out the order and took her mother on his back to the summit but he did not follow the next part of the order to leave her there, so he took his mother back to his house.

UNIT: 8

WOMEN’S ROLE IN PAKISTAN MOVEMENT

Q1. How did Quaid-e-Azam empower and emancipate the Muslim women of the Sub-Continent.

Ans. Quaid-e Azam empowered and emancipated the Muslim women of the Sub-Continent by creating women wing of All India Muslim League. He addressed them and realized them the importance of women role in the society.

Q2. How did Begum Fatima Jinnah, the principal of Jinnah Islamia College, mobilize female students?

Ans. Begum Fatima Jinnah, the principal of Jinnah Islamia College, mobilized female students by inviting the Quaid-e Azam to her college to addressed the female students and reminded them about their role in society.

Q3. Why did the Quaid-e-Azam stress the importance of women as equal partners of men in the creation of a separate homeland for Muslims?

Ans. The Quaid-e-Azam knew that no nation has ever achieved success without the help of its women. He wanted the Muslim women to support their men, if they wanted to get a separate homeland.

Q4. Describe the role of women in the Pakistan movement, highlighting their love and aspirations for the new homeland.

Ans. Women played a vital role in the Pakistan movement. They worked side by side with their men in mobilizing the people. They took active participation in demonstrations and held public meetings.

Q5. Analyse the third paragraph of the lesson women’s role in the Pakistan’s Movement and identify the sentences that support the main idea through cause and effect.

Ans. The sentence that supports the main idea through cause and effect is that Quaid-e-Azam, who was reorganizing and revitalizing the Muslims after his return from England in 1934, created All India Muslim Women’s Sub Committee of the Muslim League.

Unit: 9

EQUIPMENT

Q.1 Paraphrase the second stanza of the poem “Equipment”?

Ans. Examine the wise and the great people. They are common people like others. They use the same common plates which others use. They do not use special knives and forks for eating food. There is no difference between the laces they tie their boots with’ and the laces used by others. The people admit their bravery and intelligence. These great people reached to the heights of success through the same equipment with which you are equipped with.

Q.2 Summarize the poem “Equipment”? –

Ans The poem “Equipment” has been written by Edgar Guest. Here, he addresses the young people and tells them that they can become great if they try to become so. He. tells them that they have a lot of capabilities in them. They can do something great if -they make courage and work hard. The poet further says that each person can reach the peak if he tries to reach there. God has equipped him with everything. That he needs. He has two arms, two legs and two eyes. Now, it is up to him whether he uses these organs wisely or not. Strong will power, courage and self-control. Are some of the qualities, which are necessary for a person to become great?

Q.3 Write down the rhyme scheme of the poem “Equipment”? .

Ans. The rhyme scheme. Of the poem “Equipment” is regular. It is as bb cc. The first line rhymes with the second one, the third line with the fourth one while the fifth line rhymes with the sixth one.

Q.4 what is the theme of the poem “Equipment”?

Ans The theme. Of the poem “Equipment” is that a person can become great if he wants to do so in the real sense of the word. He is the master of his fate. He can change his destiny with constant struggle and strong will power.

Q.5 “All human beings are created equal”. Explain this statement in the light of the poem “Equipment”.

Ans. In the poem “Equipment” the poet tells a young man that there is no difference between him and a great man. Both have been gifted with equal equipment by God. All human beings have two legs, two arms and two eyes. Similarly, all have been granted equal physical as well as mental capabilities. All these show that all human beings are created equal.

Q.6 How do you feel after reading the poem “Equipment”?

Ails. After. Reading the poem “Equipment” I feel encouraged. The poem, realizes • me that I Can do whatever great men are doing. I. Have been granted the same organs and capabilities which have been granted. to others. I can do wonders if I have the courage to work hard.

UNIT;10

WATER SCARCITY IN PAKISTAN

Q1. What are the main sources of water in Pakistan?

Ans. Main sources of water in Pakistan are rainfall, melting glaciers, surface water like rivers, streams, canals, and underground water.

Q2. What are the river drainage systems of Pakistan? Describe them briefly.

Ans. Pakistan has three main river drainage systems.

The Indus Basin River.

It originates near the Kailash range, flows to the west and flows into the Arabian Sea. Its main rivers are Ravi, Chinab, Jehlum, Sutlaj, Beas, Kabul, Swat, Gomal, and Tochi etc.

Closed Basin Kharan Desert.

It consists of mountain basins of Quetta and Kharan district. Its main rivers are Pishin Lora, Baddo Rakhshan, Mashkhel and other streams.

Makran Coastal Basin.

Makran coastal basin consists of streams of Malir, Hub, Kud, Nai, Dasht, Kech, Parole, Hingoi, Nihing, And Mashhai.

Q3. What are the main causes of water shortage in Pakistan?

Ans. Main causes of water shortage in Pakistan are mismanagement of water resources, lack of large dams, leaking irrigation, and lack of public awareness not realizing the worth of water.

Q4. What measures can we take to overcome the water shortage in Pakistan?

Ans. We must build dams on large and small scales to minimize the flow of water into Arabian sea. We must adopt modern irrigation techniques. We must launch ‘Save Water save Earth’ campaign for public awareness.

Q5. What can you do to contribute to conservation of water in Pakistan?

Ans. I can stop leakage of pipes and tapes in my home. I can improve the sewerage system of my locality. I can use print and electronic media to inform others about the worth of water.

Q6. What is the importance of building national reservoirs?

Ans. National reservoirs are important to store water on a large scale to be used in agriculture, industry, and homes. We can produce electricity on a large scale if we have national reservoirs. We can improve our economy also.

Unit: 11

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

Q.1 what is gene and genetics?

Ans A gene is the basic unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Each person has thousands of genes. Genetics is a branch of biology related to the Study of genes, genetic variation and heredity in organisms.-

Q.2 Why is the discovery of gene _called a game changer in. biological sciences.

Ans. The discovery of gene is called the game changer in • biological’ sciences because it is the gene that increases. The productivity of plants and prevents diseases -in humans: Genes play an important role in determining physical fruits.

Q.3 what is genetic engineering? What role does genetic engineering play in producing genetically modified organisms?

Ans. Genetic engineering_ is the process of using technology to change the genetic makeup of an organism. The purpose of this process is to enhance or modify the characteristics of an individual organism. It can be applied to any organism whether it is an animal, a bird or a plant.

Q.4 Name some GMOs and describe their characteristics by showing how they are different from naturally occurring organisms.

Ans. Starlight avatar,- tomato, potato, fatty soya bean and cat’s DNA are some of the GMOs. Starlight avatar is the first genetically modified plant which produces its own light. -It glows in. the dark like a ‘firefly. By using genetic engineering, the genes of potatoes have been modified so that they can stay on the vine for a long time and develop a mature favour. Fatty soya bean has been modified so that it can produce beans having less fat. A cat’s DNA has been genetically engineered to glow in the dark. This helps scientists to study those molecules which stop AIDS.

Q.5 Write at least two merits and two demerits of GMOs.

Ans. The first merit of GMOs is that their production is greater than those products which are naturally grown. Secondly, genetically modified plants are tasty and have the ability to resist diseases.

The first demerit of GMOs is that GMO food contains substances that may cause liver and kidney problems: —another demerit of GMO is that it decreases the crop’S ability to produce vitamin E.

Q.6 what in your opinion will be the effect of GMOs on your lives, life-style and environment in the future?

Ans. I think that with the development of science and technology, GMO will make our lives and life7style. Easier in future. Due to GMOs, food will be available more cheaply and in abundance. At present they do not have good effect on environment.. But the days are not. far away when GMOs will have positive effect on it.

Q.7 Have you ever used genetically modified foods? Give your suggestions and solutions for the safe use of genetically modified foods.

Ans. Yes, I have used and am using genetically modified foods because they are very common now a days. Besides their ‘merits, GMOs have demerits also. We should use genetically modified foods only when wearer sure that they are not harmful to our health. This is possible only if the Food Department checks and allows only those foods in the market that are safe.

Unit.12

THEY HAVE CUT DOWN THE PINE

Stanza.1

They have cut down the pine where they stood,

The wind will miss them—the rain

When its silver blind is down

They have stripped the bark from the wood

The needy boughs, and the brown

Knobby nuts trodden into the ground.

Paraphrase;

People have cut down the pine trees from there standing place. Now there friends the blowing wind and the pouring rain with its silver water will miss them. The people have separated the bark from its trunk. Their sharp needle like branches along with the brown coloured knobby nuts is lying on the ground below.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. Who have cut down the pine trees?

Ans. People have cut down the pine trees.

Q2. Who will miss the pine trees?

Ans. The poet, the wind, and the rain will miss the pine trees.

Q3. What does the poet mean by ‘silver blind is down’?

Ans: The poet means the transparent pouring rain water.

Q2. How did the pine trees spend their days?

Ans. They spent their days enjoying with the wind and the rain.

Q4. What did the people do with the trees?

Ans. They have separated the bark from the wood.

Q5. What does the needly bough mean?

Ans. Needly bough means sharp pointed needle like branches.

Q6. What happened to the boughs and nuts of the pine trees?

Ans. They are lying on the ground, trodden by the people.

Q7. What is the effect of cutting trees on nature?

Ans. Nature misses the company of trees. The wind and rain miss their friends the pine trees.

Q8. What is the tone of the stanza?

Ans. The stanza is in pessimistic tone/mood. Objects of nature feel the loss of the pine trees.

Q9. Identify metaphor in the stanza.

Ans. Silver blind is used as a metaphor in the stanza.

Q10. Why does the poet lament the loss of trees?

Ans. The poet laments the loss of trees because they were a part of nature.

Stanza.2

The kind and friendly trees,

where all day small winds sound

And all day long the sun

play hide and seek with shadows

Till the multiplying shadows turn to one

And night is here.

Paraphrase;

The trees were very kind and friendly in nature. They would produce sweet sounds with the gentle breeze and the sun used to play the whole day with them by making shadows till sunset. when these shadows would become one large gigantic shadow at the approach of night.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What kind of behavior does the pine trees have?

Ans. The pine trees are kind and have a friendly behavior.

Q2. What happens all day long with trees? How do the pine trees spend their day?

Ans. The pine trees spend their day playing with the wind and sunlight.

Q3. What does the poet mean by ‘the sun plays hide and seek with the shadows’?

Ans. It means that sun enjoys the shadows of pine trees.

Q. What do multiplying shadows mean?

Ans. They mean different shadows made by the sun and trees.

Q4. How do multiplying shadows turn to one?

Ans. Multiplying shadows turn to one at night when the sun sets.

Q5. Describe/Identify personification in this stanza.

Ans. The sun plays hide and seek like kids with the shadows.

Q6. Which objects of nature does the poet mention in this stanza?

Ans. Poet mentions trees, wind, sun, shadows, and night in the stanza.

Q7. Why are the trees called friendly?

Ans. The trees are called friendly because they are helpful for everyone.

Q8. What does the poet mean by ‘multiplying shadows turn to one’?

Ans. The poet means the time of sunset when all the shadows become a single large shadow.

Q9. Where do small winds sound?

Ans. Small winds sound in the trees.

Q10. Where does the sun play hide and seek all day?

Ans. The sun plays hide and seek with the shadows of the trees.

Q11. When do the shadows multiply?

Ans. They multiply before the sunset.

Stanza.3

They have cut down the trees and ended now

The gentle colloquy of bough and bough.

They are making a fence by creek

And have cut down the pines for the posts.

Paraphrase

The people have cut down the pine trees and this cutting has finished gentle, sweet, and routine discussion among the branches now. Those people are making a railing near a stream and they have cut down the pine trees in order to make posts for that railing..

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What happened to the pine trees?

Who have cut down the pine trees?

Ans. People have cut down the pine trees.

Q2. What has finished because of cutting trees?

Ans. The gentle discussion among the branches of trees has finished now.

Q3. Identify personification in the stanza.

Ans. Personification is in the form of gentle discussion among boughs of the pine trees like humans.

Q4. Why have the people cut down the pine trees?

Ans. They have cut down the pine trees to make a fence by the creek.

Q5. What will the people do with the trunks of the pine trees?

Ans. They will make posts for the fence from them.

Q6. How was the colloquy of boughs?

Ans. Boughs had a gentle colloquy.

Q7. What does the poet mean by creek?

Ans. Creek means a small stream of water.

Q8. Where are they making a fence?

Ans. They are making a fence along a creek.

Stanza.4

Wan in the sunlight for ghosts

The naked trunk lie.

A bird nested there–it will seek

In vain: they have cut down the pine.

Paraphrase

The trunks of the pine trees are now lie down in the pale sunlight for ghosts to live there. A bird had her nest in one of those trees. Now when she will come back, she will not find her home there because those people have cut down the pine trees.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What happened to the pine trees? How are the trunks lying on the ground?

Ans. They are lying naked without bark in the sunlight.

Q2. Who was living in the trees?

Ans. A bird was living in the trees

Q3. Will the bird find its nest?

Ans. The bird will not find its nest because the people have cut down the pine trees

Q4. How do the trunks seem in the sunlight?

Ans. Trunks seem pale in the sunlight.

Q5. Why do the trunks seem pale?

Ans. The trunks seem pale because they are lying in the sun without any life.

Q6. Name the poet and poem of this stanza.

Ans. The poem is ‘They have cut down the pines written by Mary Lisle.

UNIT.13

HAZRAT UMAR (RA)

Q1. Why did Hazrat Umar RA deposit the jewels given by the empress of Rome to Hazrat Umar’s wife, in the Bait-ul-Mal?

Ans. Hazrat Umar (RA) did not want to get unnecessary benefit from his position. He considered the bottle of jewels as the property of his people. Therefore, he deposited them in Bait-ul-Mal.

Q2. Hazrat Umar RA was one of those people who served the new religion with singleness of purpose. Describe the services of Hazrat Umar RA to Islam in the context of this statement.

Ans. He spent his whole life in the services of Islam. He took part in many battles. He would take care of the needy, the poor, the widows, and the orphans. He used to roam in disguise in the streets of Madina to know about the condition of his people.

Q3. Humility and simplicity were the hallmark of Hazrat Umar’s (RA) rule. Support this view by giving evidences from the text.

Ans. Hazrat Umar (RA) was a ruler yet he lived a humble and simple life. He had no palace but prefer to sleep on the bare floor of Masjid-e-Nabvi. He would eat coarse bread and wear coarse clothes. He considered himself a servant of his subject. Everyone had an easy access to his court.

Q4. Why did Hazrat Umar (RA) not eat wheat bread?

Ans. Hazrat Umar (RA) did not consider himself above the ordinary man. He did not eat wheat bread because wheat bread was not available to every man in his dominions. He made no distinction between the ruler and the ruled,

Q5. How did Hazrat Umar (RA) ensure his own accountability and the accountability of his governors before the public during his government?

Ans. Everyone in the public had an easy access to Hazrat Umar (RA). They can ask him about his actions concerning the state freely. He ordered all the governors to sign a bond on his appointment that the complainant would have an easy access to them at any time.

Unit: 14

THE MODEL MILLIONAIRE

Q.1 what was Hughie’s financial status?

Ans. Hughie was once a successful tea merchant. At that time he had a lot of money. But unluckily, the price of tea declined which affected Hughie’s business badly. He became so poor that he did not have even ten thousand pounds which he needed to marry Laura, the girl he loved.

Q.2 what condition was laid down by the colonel for Hughie’s marriage to his daughter?

Ans. The colonel was a greedy person. When Hughie was a prosperous tea merchant, he agreed to give his daughter’s hand to him. But when all of a sudden Hughie became poor, the colonel laid down a condition. The condition was that Hughie should arrange ten thousand pounds for the marriage.

Q.3 Was Alan a good painter? What makes you think that?

Ans. Yes, Alan was a good painter. He was famous for his art and skill. The pictures which he drew were in great demand. He worked in a s studio of his own. When Hughie visited his studio, he was giving final touches to a life-size picture of a beggar who was standing in a corner of the studio.

Q.4 Describe the role of Colonel Martin in the story. Would you describe him as a negative character or not? Why?

Ans. Colonel Martin is a negative character. He is a materialistic person. He is not true to his words. When Hughie is a prosperous merchant, he is ready to give his daughter’s hand to him. But when bad luck strikes him, he changes his mind. He tells Hughie’s mother that he will give his ‘daughter’s hand only if her .son – comes with ten thousand pounds.

Q.5 Draw the character sketch of Erskine Hug hies in the story “The Model Millionaire”? •

Ans. Erskine Hughie is the main character in the story. Physically, he is attractive and charming. His looks and attitude get him a lot of friends. He tries his luck at everything but does not succeed in becoming wealthy. Despite his poverty, he is generous and kind-hearted towards poor.

Q.6 Describe the climax of the story in your own words.

Ans. Erskine Hughie sees a beggar in the studio of his friend. He is, dressed in worn out clothes. Hughie takes pity on him. He takes out a coin from his pocket and gives it to him. The story reaches its climax when Trevor tells Hughie that the man is not a beggar but one of the richest men in Europe. This news makes Hughie very confused. He leaves for his house with sad heart.

Q.7 what is the theme of the story “The Model Millionaire”?

Ans. The theme of the story “The Model Millionaire” is kindness begets kindness. Hughie showed kindness and generosity by giving a coin to the beggar. The beggar was actually a baron who was one of the richest men in Europe. When the baron came to know that Hughie was a poor person, he was greatly impressed by his generosity. He sent ten thousand pounds to him to materialize his marriage with Laura.

UNIT.15

OPPORTUNITY

Stanza.1

THEY do me wrong who say I come no more

When once I knock and fail to find you in

For every day, I stand outside your door

and bid you wake and rise to fight and win.

Paraphrase;

Some people are not true by saying that if you did not avail an opportunity, it will never come again. Each day brings a new opportunity to your door steps. It encourage you to get up and do something for your goals to achieve.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. Who is the speaker in the stanza?

Ans. Opportunity is the speaker in the stanza.

Q2. What do people say about opportunity?

Ans. People say that opportunity comes only once in life.

Q3. Is it true to say that opportunity comes only once in life? How?

Ans. It is not true to say because it comes daily in different forms

Q4. Who knocks at the door daily?

Ans. Opportunity knocks at the door daily.

Q5. Who stands outside your door?

Ans. Opportunity stands outside the door.

Q6. What does opportunity say to you?

Ans. Opportunity asks you to wake up and rise to fight and win.

Q7. Identify personification in the stanza.

Ans. Opportunity is personified as a living being who comes daily to wake up the people.

Q8. What is the theme in the stanza?

Ans. The theme in the stanza is that opportunity is always there. A person should be ready to avail it.

Stanza.2

Wail not for precious chances passed away

Weep not for golden ages on the wane

Each night I burn the records of the day.

At sunrise every soul is born again

Paraphrase

Do not mourn for those precious chances that you could not avail. Do not cry after the golden times that vanished and could not be called back. Every night I forgive and forget all the happenings of the day. Every new day gives a new life to every person to avail the opportunity.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What does opportunity say?

State the advice of opportunity?

Ans. Opportunity says that one should not weep for the lost chances of the past.

Q2. What does the poet mean by golden ages?

Ans. Golden ages mean the glorious time of the past.

Q3. What does the word “wane” mean?

Ans. The word wane means decreasing in value.

Q4. What does opportunity do each night?

Ans. Opportunity burns all the happenings of the day

Q5. What happens with every sunrise?

Ans. Every sunrise gives another chance to every person.

Q6. Who is the speaker in the stanza?

Ans. Opportunity is the speaker in the stanza.

Q7. Identify the personification in the stanza.

Ans. Opportunity is personified as a living being that comes daily to wake up the people.

Q8. What is the theme of the stanza?

Ans. Theme of the stanza is that we should avail the upcoming opportunities rather than crying after the lost ones.

Stanza.3

Dost thou behold thy lost youth all aghast?

Dost reel from righteous Retribution’s blow?

Then turn from blotted archives of the past

And find the future pages white as snow

Paraphrase

Do you look back at your lost youth with surprise? Are you worried about the punishment of your wrong deeds? If this is the case, then forget your wasted past and look to the future where you will find new opportunities.

Stanza comprehension

Q1. Who is the speaker in the stanza?

Ans. Opportunity is the speaker in the stanza.

Q2. How does the person look at his lost youth?

Ans. The person looks at his lost youth with amazement.

Q3. What is the person worried about?

Ans. The person is worried about the moral punishment of his past deeds.

Q4. What does the word retribution mean?

Ans. It means the moral punishment of the past deeds.

Q5. What kind of advice does the poet give to the man?

Ans. The poet advises the man to turn away from the past life.

Q6. What will the man find in the future?

Ans. He will find the future life like blank white papers.

Q7. What does the poet mean by future pages?

Ans. Future pages mean life in the future.

Q8. Identify the simile in the stanza.

Ans. Future pages of life are compared to the snow.

Q9. Identify alliteration in the stanza.

Ans. Reel from righteous Retribution is the alliteration in the stanza.

Q10. What is the theme of the stanza?

Ans. Theme of the stanza is that one should forget his past life and look to the future to do something nice.

Stanza.4

Art thou a mourner? Rouse thee from thy spell;

Art thou a sinner? Sins may be forgiven;

Each morning gives the wings to flee from hell

Each night a star guide thy feet to heaven

Paraphrase

Stand up and stop shedding tears. ALLAH forgives sins if you have done wrong. Every new day gives you a chance to repent and seek salvation. Every night a star leads you towards heaven

Stanza comprehension

Q1. What advice is given in this stanza?

Ans. The poet advises to get up from the spell of mourning.

Q2. What shall a mourner do?

Ans. A mourner should leave his mourning and be hopeful.

Q3. What may be done with sins of the man?

Ans. His sins may be forgiven by Allah.

Q4. What does each morning give us?

Ans. Each morning gives a chance to free ourselves from hell.

Q5. What according to the poet guides us to heaven?

What happens each night?

Ans. A star guides us to heaven each night.

Q6. What is the message in the stanza?

Ans. The message in the stanza is to stop crying over the past and to take advantage from the future.

Stanza.5

Laugh like a boy at splendors that have sped,

To vanished joys be blind and deaf and dumb

My judgments seal the dead past with its dead

But never bind a moment yet to come

Paraphrase

You should laugh care freely like a boy at the glorious time that you have spent in the past. Have a blind eye, deaf ear, and dumb speech to the joys that had finished. I consider the past like the dead people, that cannot be brought again in this world but you should never waste any moment that comes in the future

Stanza comprehension

Q1. How shall we take the past life?

Ans. We shall take the past life lightly like a boy.

Q2. What shall be our behaviour to the past joys?

Ans. We shall forget those past joys. We shall be blind, deaf and dumb to the past joys.

Q3. How does opportunity look at the past? What is the behavior of opportunity for the past?

Ans. Past is dead for opportunity like the dead people.

Q4. Can we take benefit from the lost opportunity in the past? How?

Ans. We cannot take benefit from the lost opportunity because we have lost the time.

Q5. How shall we look at the future?

Ans. We shall never waste any moment in the future.

Q6. Describe the moral in the stanza.

Ans. Moral of the stanza is that we should take benefit from the future because past life cannot be called back.

Stanza.6

Though deep in mire, wring not your hands and weep;

I lend my arms to all who say “I can”

No shame-faced outcast ever sank so deep

But yet might rise and be again a man

Paraphrase

If you are stuck in the difficult situations of your life, do not be upset and stop crying because I am there- your opportunity. I always help all the brave people. Those who are ashamed of their failures should work hard again

Stanza comprehension

Q1. How does opportunity advise us?

Ans. Opportunity advises us not to feel sorry in times of troubles.

Q2. How does opportunity help us?

Ans. Opportunity helps us by providing new chances.

Q3. What does it mean, “I lend my arms”?

Ans. It means opportunity gives a chance to the brave people.

Q4. To whom does the opportunity lend its arm?

Ans. Opportunity lends its arms to the brave people.

Q5. Identify personification in the stanza?

Ans. Opportunity is personified as a living being who can help others.

Q6. How/why does a person sink deep?

Ans. A person sinks deep because of shame and rejection from the people.

Q7. What does the word outcast mean?

Ans. It means rejected by the people.

Q8. What can happen to a miserable person?

Ans. He can rise again and be a great person.

Q9. Describe the connotative and denotative meanings of the word ‘mire’.

Ans. Its connotative meaning is mud or marsh. Its denotative meaning is the problems of life.

Q10. Who can say, “I can.”

Ans. Brave people can say I can.

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