English Essays for Class 2nd Year Section 4 Assessment and Evaluation in Library Science
English Essays for Class 2nd Year Section 4 Assessment and Evaluation in Library Science. Library assessment is a process undertaken by libraries to learn about the needs of users (and non-users) and to assess the extent to which they meet those needs, in order to improve the facilities, services and resources of the library. the library. In many libraries, a successful library assessment depends on the existence of a ‘culture of assessment’ in the library  which aims to involve all library staff in the process. evaluation and improve customer service.
Although most academic libraries have collected data on the size and use of their collections for decades, it is only since the late 1990s that many have embarked on a systematic process of evaluation (see examples of work plans) by querying their users as well as their collections. Today, many university libraries have created the position of Library Assessment Manager in order to coordinate and supervise their assessment activities. In addition, many libraries publish on their websites the improvements that have been implemented as a result of their surveys as a means of demonstrating accountability to survey participants.
The purpose of assessment is to find out whether students have acquired the kind of skills, knowledge, and understanding that we set as goals for Our Courses.
This purpose is achieved traditionally by conducting an examination at the end of the session called summative assessment. In this form of assessment, teachers require students to express their understanding of what teachers taught them and the performance of students is measured as grade points. This is a convenient form of assessment because It Is easy to carry out and it does not consume much time.
However, this form of assessment is a single snap shot at the end of the session and does not provide opportunity either to the student or to the teacher to interact formatively throughout the session as the student strives to develop his understanding of the content and purpose of the course.
This vacuum can be filled by using FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT, which is an ongoing process throughout the session and uses Test – Feedback -Adjust cycle repeatedly to improve students’ performance and efferent-y in learning
Guidelines for appropriate Assessment
1. In addition to the end of the session exam, the practice of formative assessment should be used throughout the session.
2. Tasks in the Formative mode of assessment should include
• Frequent written tests
• Group discussion
• Oral Presentation
3. Feedback on students’ work in the above tasks should be provided to the students.
4. Question setting should be specifically directed to finding out the following Skills,
Knowledge and Understanding according to the Bloom’s Taxonomy as given below
a recall and retrieve information related to the contents of the course.
Leading words for setting questions:
List, define, identify, label, tabulate, name, who, when, Where and so on.
b Comprehend the information le, do they know what .t means . Leading words for setting questions:
Interpret, predict, distinguish, differentiate, estimate, discuss etc
c. Apply their knowledge i.e. do they know what is it good for.
Leading words for setting questions:
Demonstrate, show, solve, classify, illustrate, modify, change, discover etc.
Analyze and synthesize information i.e. taking things apart and putting together, leading words for setting questions: Analyze: analyze, separate, explain, arrange, compare, infer Synthesize: combine, integrate, rearrange, create, formulate, design etc
Evaluate information e. weighing available options killing words for setting questions:
Decide measure recommend, select, conclude, compare., summarize etc.
S. Assessment should measure the capacity of students for critical judgment.
6 Assessment should focus on learning potentials for future learning at their own.
7 The question paper shot*, cover the entire syllabus.
8. There should be dace in the paper,
9. The paper should include Essay type questions, Short questions and MCQS.
10. Assessment should not Judge weaknesses only but Pt must also focus on students’ strength and capabilities.
11. The assessment should be able to measure the initiative and drive of the students.
12 The teacher must make sure that the student during assessment feels comfortable and relaxed rather than tense and anxious.
13- Assessment language should be simple, dear, and unambiguous.
The formative assessment should be a part of the classroom learning. Following may b’ thr devices on which the said objectives can be achieved.
• Objective enhancement-worksheets, quizzes, and tests
• Review questions
• Classroom discussions
• Oral presentation
The formative assessment should be cumulative and comprehensive and cover all objectives as per curriculum. Grading of students should be done through the use of assessment instruments that cover the expectations as defined by the objectives of the curriculum.
Art external examination is recommended at the end of the course. This evaluation should measure all the domains of learning and through it, the attainment of the objectives can be measured. The weight age of the different domains of learning is given below;
Learning Domains for Measurement
• Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis,
Evaluation, Synthesis, Application:
• Skills of Communication, Initiating and Planning, Designing Experiments and Interpreting Data:
• Manipulative skills ((Performing Practical Work) 20%
Weighing of Assessment Objectives
Theory assessment: The theory examination is suggested to consist of a wide variety of questions_ the assessment should be designed to examine the candidate’s understanding of the whole syllabus and should test the following range of abilities. Knowledge and understanding (recall 30%) 60% Higher abilities (handling information, application. and problem solving etc.) 40%
Practical Assessment: This is designed to test Experimental skills and investigations.
Suggestions for Structuring Assessment and evaluation Tools:
More Emphasis should be on; Less Emphasis should be on;
• Assessing what I most highly valued
• Assessing what is easily measured
• Assessing rich, went-structured
- Assessing discrete knowledge knowledge
• Assessing scientific understanding and
- Assessing scientific knowledge reasoning
• Assessing to learn what students do
• Assessing to learn what students understand not know
• Assessing achievement and
• Assessing to learn what students does opportunity to learn not know?
• Students engaged in ongoing
• Assessing only achievement assessment of their work and that of others
• Teachers involved in the development
• Development of external assessments of external assessments by experts alone
• Assessment pattern is subject to the requirement, policies, and procedures of the Examination Boards.
• Question paper should be based on the curriculum not on a particular textbook.
• Questions involving unfarndiar contexts or daily-life experiences may be set to asses candidates’ problem-solving and higher-order processing skills. In answering such questions, sufficient information be given for candidates to understand the situation or context, Candidates are expected to apply their knowledge and skills included in the syllabus to solve the problems.
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS
The National Curricula should be a reflection of our national needs and aspirations_ this requirement can be met only if the textbooks are written- in accordance with this curriculum. This curriculum meets not only the general aims and objectives but also fulfills the specific requirements of the individual subjects. Keeping these points in view the authors should observe the following points, while writing the textbooks
1. The authors should adhere to the learning outcomes of each concept or chapter as mentioned with the contents in the curricula.
2. The continuity of the concepts with the earlier classes, their integration and logical development should be ensured,
3 Horizontal and vertical overlapping of the concepts should be avoided,
4. The textbook should be informative and interactive with questions to be put at suitable intervals to provoke the students to think.
5 The details of the treatment of the concept should be properly classified into headings and subheadings.
. The language used should be simple, clear, straight forward,. Unambiguous and easily comprehensible by the students of the particular level
7 Simple questions may be asked within the chapter, *Nth requires students to recall, think, and apply what they have just learnt as well as to reinforce the learning of the concepts and principle.
8. The new advancements and development in the subjects should be incorporated where appropriate.
9. The examples and applications should be from everyday life and be supportive of our cultural values.
10. Photographs, diagrams and illustrations should be clear, labeled and supportive of the text. Material, Related flow charts and graphs may be given wherever needed.
11. Key points at the end of each chapter should provide a summary of the important concepts and principles discussed in the chapter
12. Review questions should be given at the end of each chapter requiring students to recall, think and apply what they have learnt in this chapter. This should start from simple questions increasing the complexity gradually and should test knowledge, understanding and skills of the students. The last few questions should encourage the student to apply the concepts studied in this chapter.
13. Each chapter should be accompanied with its precise and coherent summary to be given at the end of this chapter.
ELECTRONIC INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL:
Electronic instructional material is gaining popularity in the developed world. Educational technology providers are successfully marketing courseware with instructional management, assessment, individualized learning paths and professional development. Growing numbers of teachers have convenient and immediate access to entire libraries of instructional video correlated to curriculum. As far the educational scenario in Pakistan and other developing countries is concerned, lack of resources (particularly in schools) would hold back the evolution of electronic publishing ►n place of or along with printing,
It may be considered that a good ratio of the students of all classes have access to computer technologies. They should be given chances of self learning (rather exploring the kncnvfedge) and it can be made true by converting the data of the textbooks into electronic formats Lg. CD¬ROMs. The CD-ROMs should be made available at the retail outlets. Where students don’t have computers at schools/colleges or at homes, they may explore the CO-ROM at Internet cafe
The flow sheet diagrams are more important to convey the desired learning. Printed textbooks cannot tackle the diagrams that need 3 dimensional views for their understanding. Diagrams, photographs and animations should be published in electronic format i.e. CO-ROM that can be made an accessory item with the printed textbook., Such a CO should also have installed software for students’ assessment and evaluation in the form of tests, quizzes and games.
CHAPTER ORGANIZING SYSTEM
Chapter Organizing system — It should be taken into account that a consistent numbering system leads the students through each chapter at a glance in the beginning to conceptual heading throughout and finally to the summary of key concepts at the end Each chapter should be organized in the foot toby,ng pattern
The exercise should include;
• Multi* Choke Questions
• Short Questions
• Extensive Questions
(Questions should be made that can check learning outcomes in all the domains i.e. knowledge. comprehension, application, evaluation, synthesis and connection with technology and society)
SALIENT FEATURES OF THE CURRICULUM
The curriculum is fully in harmony with the National Priorities and win provide an important momentum for achieving au vision for students.
Configuration with the Restructured Schemes of Studies:
The Ministry of Education went through an arduous exercise for restructuring the National Schemes of Studies. The Curriculum Development Team, whole designing the curriculum, selecting the syllabi contents, carving the learning outcomes (including practical skills) and suggesting the timeframes and evaluation strategies for the contents, maintained a concrete configuration with the restructured schemes of study,
The Focused Areas: it has been focused that the curriculum provides to the students:
- Challenges and Enjoyment
- Personalization and Choice
- Relive ice Reduction in Load:
Since it was important that the Quality of Library Science education at the secondary level was not compromised in any way, the reduction on load from the syllabus required a very careful selection of topics to be taint. The Team chose to leave topics out O.
The question about why the student needs to study the topic at the particular stage could not be answered;
The topic had no direct relevance to the student i.e. was not contextual;
The content was repetitive across stages with no change in expected understanding, and
Any topic was In Isolation with no evident horizontal or vertical linkages. The need for a network of Ideas and cross linking between the areas being identified was deemed very important. While deciding on the chapters/topics and the depth of each topic for the secondary level, a holistic view of the syllabus across all stages from the primary to the higher secondary and beyond was taken. Reducing the use of too many technical terms and avoiding very large numbers of examples will also help to make the content a little lighter. The importance of careful selection of illustrations and their use to make the concepts more explicit was stressed, In library Science, the quality of illustrations can make or mar any attempt at good textbooks/teaching.
The curriculum also takes: Up: SUMS pertaining to environment, health and other
ethical issues that arise with any Interference of human beings in the natural processes. Which have great relit ante from the societal point ea view Reasoning Vs Comprehension:
In secondary and higher secondary classes, abstraction and quantitative reasoning come to occupy a more central place than in the primary and elementary classes. We have to avoid the attempt to be comprehensive. A topic can be made comprehensive in two ways;
Adding many more concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame
Enumeration of things or types of things, even where there is no strong conceptual basis for classification
In the present revision, no attempt Is made to be comprehensive. Unnecessary enumeration is avoided. The process by which factual knowledge can be acquired is more important than the facts themselves.
The New library Science Curriculum
• Has a concrete structure, and wall sequenced yet offers flex Betty and maintains the momentum over all years of high school Library Science.
• Highlights the degree of student’s expectations by laying out baseline levels of achievement at the end of grade X and XII respectively. These expectations are reflected within the Standards and Benchmarks as well as the Aims and Objects sections of the document.
• Emphasizes on Higher Order Thanking through the seven year period. Students are encouraged to think at higher levels for thernselveSi becoming independent of the teacher—–a life-long learning skill.
• Focuses on all the cognitive levels of the Revised Bloorn’s taxonomy. There is a conscious effort to shift from simply knowing, remembering, and understanding to the more complex applying analyzing, evaluating. And seating skills required for success in this 21″ century world.
• Makes positive connections among the contents taught, skills acquired, and a variety of real-life situational applications. The abstract begins to be more meaningful and students realize the -why- in their learning requirements.
• Bridges the gaps between content know. *** And practical experiences by tying the two together. All practical work and field worth activities are now connected to their respective topics and where there are none, it clearly states so
• Has done away with redundant and repetitive topics and this made room to accommodate more current and contemporary library Science topics that affect the lives of students today and will do so in their future as wet Provides flexibility to the teachers in terms of teaching time and preparation
• Allows students to experience the learning of science by doing science and not just Strewing to science.
• Focuses on providing “thinking”. -creative, critical, and analytical—opportunities to students and teachers.
• Provides a chance to honestly compare the docuiiivm with any similar document from around the globe.
Provides opportunities to explore the library Science soberer and discover the wonder of science for °nose.
Tremendous amounts of time, ‘lion and energy have gone into the preparation of the document- Hours have been spent discussing, arguing and compromising on issues and topics as they arose. This document in your hands is the result of well thought out procedures and processes. Let our children begin to experience education in the truest sense of the term.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN LEARNING OUTCOMES/
This glossary is intended to ensure that terms commonly used in the context of learning outcomes and assessment are appropnatety interpreted so that no confusion what-so, ever arises in their use
These words are listed below along with their contextual meaning
We urge the users of these terms to strictly follow this glossary and awns: lee meanings to the key words as given in this glossary
• Define (the term(s)…) is intended literally. Only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase, such as the defining equation with symbols identified, being required.
• What is meant by normally implies that a definition should be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned, especially where two or more terms are Included in the question. The amount of supplementary comment intended should be interpreted in the light of the indicated mark value
• Explain may imply reasoning or some reference to theory, depending on the context.
• State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument, e.g. a numerical answer that can be obtained ‘by inspection’.
• List requires a number of points with no elaboration. Where a given number of points are specified, this should not be exceeded.
• Describe requires candidates to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate► the main points of the topic. It is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular experiments. In the former instance, the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to (casual) observations associated with the phenomena The amount of description intended should be interpreted in the light of the in & acted mark value
• Discuss requires candidates to give a critical account of the points incised in the topic,
• Deduce/Predict implies that candidates are not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given in the question or may depend on answers extracted in an earlier part of the question.
• Suggest is used in two main contexts. It may either imply that there is no unique answer or that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge to a ‘never situation, one that formally may not be in the syllabi’.
• Calculate is used when a numerical answer Is required. In general, working should be shown.
• Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable’• measuring instrument, e.g. Mass using a balance.
• Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula e.g. relative molecular mass or ideal gas equation.
• Show is used where a candidate is expected to derive a given result. It is important that the terms being used by candidates «re stated explicitly and that all stages in the derivation are stated clearly.
• Estimate implies a reasoned order of rnagnaude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned. Candidates should make such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about points of principle and about the values of quantities not otherwise included in the question.
Sketch, when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or Position of the curvy need only be qualitatively correct However. Candidates should be aware that. Depending on the context, some quantitative aspects may be looked for, eg passing through the origin, having an intercept, asymptote or discontinuity at a particular value. On a sketch graph it is essential that candidates clearly indicate what is being plotted on each axis.
• Sketch, when applied to diagrams. Implies that a simple, freehand drawing is acceptable; nevertheless, care should be taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important deta41s. Compare requires candidates to provide both similarities and differences between things or concepts.