English Essays for Class 2nd Year Section 2 Standards and Benchmarks
English Essays for Class 2nd Year Section 2 Standards and Benchmarks. The purpose of this article is to examine the use of educational standards and benchmarks in international indicators and other relevant policy publications, in particular those from the UK. However, we must first consider what is meant by pedagogical standards and benchmarks and how these concepts are defined. English Essays for Class 2nd Year Section 2 Standards and Benchmarks.
Section 2 Standards and Benchmarks
English Essays for Class 2nd Year Section 2 Standards and Benchmarks. The use of standards and references in two key indicator publications EAG and KD will then be discussed and other detailed examples from UK government publications will also be provided, in particular with regard to the definition of objectives.English Essays for Class 2nd Year Section 2 Standards and Benchmarks.
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Preparing students for success in the new millennium and beyond calls for increasing rigor and relevance in the curriculum In adult roles, individual are expected to work with others in a team sets% have an acquired knowledge base, be able to extend and refine knowledge, be able to construct new knowledge and applications and have a habit of self-assessing their assimilation of each dimension in their everyday decision making process.
This curriculum document is built upon standards, benchmarks, and learning outcomes for the benefit of student growth and progress. STANDARDS are what students should know and be able to do. Standards are broad descriptions of the knowledge and skills students should acquire in a subject area. The knowledge includes the important and enduring ideas, concepts, issues, and Information; the skills include the ways of thinking. Working, communicating, reasoning, and investigating that characterize a subject area. Standards may emphasize interdisciplinary themes as well as concepts in the core academic subjects.
Standards are based on
• Higher Order Thinking: Instructions involve students in manipulating information and ideas by synthesizing, generalizing, explaining or arriving at conclusions that produce new meaning and understanding for them.
• Deep Knowledge. Instructions address central ideas of a topic or discipline with enough thoroughness to explore connections and relationships and to produce relatively complex understanding.
• Substantive Conversation: Students engage in extended conversational exchanges with the teacher and / or peers about subject matter in a way that builds an improved and shared understanding of ideas or topics.
• Connections to the World beyond the Grade Room: Students make connections between substantive knowledge and either public problems or personal experiences.
Indicate what students should know and be able to do at various developmental levels.
Indicate what students should know and be able to do for each topic in any subject area at the appropriate developmental level, the learning outcomes sum up the total expectations from the student
The standards and the accompanying benchmarks will assist in the development of comprehensive curriculum, foster diversity in establishing high quality learning outcomes, and provide an accountability tool to individuals involved in the education marketplace. These provide a common denominator to determine how well students are performing and will assure that all students are measured on the same knowledge and skills using the same method of assessment.
1-UNDERSTANDING LIBRARIES AND LIBRARIANSHIP
Students of library science will be able to understand and appreciate the need for recording and preservation of knowledge, the role and importance of libraries and the profession of librarianship.
Students will be able to understand and realize the need, roic and importance of libraries and library profession in the society.
2_ UNDERSTANDING LIBRARY PRATICES
Students of library will be equipped with skills to carry out and streamline different library practices that beg pragmatic approach including the classification, cataloguing and reference service that would empower the students with library service’ acumen, or mind and skill set that can face the stiff and diversified challenges at the library work place.
Students will be able to exhibit and demonstrate their skills in carrying out different library procedures with special reference to the library workplace
3. USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN LIBRARIES
Students will be attic to relate the applications of Information Technology with the sustainable growth and development of libraries. Students of library science will understand the symbiotic relationship between information technology and library science
Students will be able to understand the impact of information technology on the effective use of library resources. Students will learn the use of ►formation technology tools to access and retrieve Information from libraries and online resources.
Standard 1.1 Students will be able to understand and realize the need, role and importance of libraries and library profession in the society.
1 Students will understand the emergence of writing and knowledge recording [from pictography to modern language]
1 Students will compare the various writing media (from clay tablets to the invention of paper, the book and the electronic formats).
3. Students will study the various printing methods and publishing processes
4. Students will recognize the role of libraries in terms of their need in the society.
Students will recognize different types of libraries and their roles in organizations
6. Students will learn about the profession of librarianship.
Standard 2.1 Students *if! Be able to exhibit and demonstrate their skills In carrying out different library procedures with special reference to the horary workplace.
2. Students reclogged the book selection and purchase processes in a library.
2. Students will recognize different methods of Library Classification and study different Classification Schemes and will learn the use of Dewey’s Decimal Classification Scheme to classify some books up to the first 3-digit level.
3. Students will understand the basics of Cataloguing of books and exhibit 1st Impel Cataloguing skills using the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules — II as well as other Cataloguing tools.
4 Students will learn venous book issues and return methods used by the libraries.
5 Students will recognize the various Reference and readers’ advisory services of the library.
6. Students will acquaint with the library management processes and techniques
Standard 3 1 Students will be able to understand the Impact of Information technology on the effective use of library resources. Students will learn the use of information technology tools to access and retrieve information from libraries and online resources.
1 Students will Klentify different Online Information resources and use (OFT for search and retrieval of urine information_
2_ Students will exhibit skills for searching the Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) of the library
3 Students will learn about the automated library management system and software.
INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY 1.1 What s Library
1.2 Need and importance of library
1.3 What makes a Library 1.3.1 The Collection 1.3.2 The Building?
1.3.3 Furniture and Equipment
1.3.4 Library Services and other Facilities
1.3.5 Library Staff
ART OF WRITING AND PRINTING
2.1 Historical Background of Writing
2.1.2 Symbols/ Ideography
2.1.3 Phonograph 2.1.4 Alphabets 2.1.S Calligraphy 2.1.6 Muslim Cerography
2.2 Early methods of Book production
2.2.1 Manuscripts 2.2.2 Scribes
2.2.3 Block Printing 2.2.4 Typography 2.2.3 Lithograph
2.3 Invention of Printing
2.31 Johann Gutenberg’s invention
2.3.2 Machine printing
2.3.3 Computerized printing
23.4 Publishing world
EVOLUTION OF WRITING MATERIALS
3.1 Definition and need of writing media 3.2 Prehistoric drawings
3.2.1 Walls of caves
32.2 Surfaces of rocks
3.3 Ancient /Early historic
3.3.1 Clay tablets
3.3.4 Papyrus and Palm Leaves 3.4 Invention of Paper
3.5 Modern writing materials
3.5.1 Electronic / Digital Material 3-S.2 Floppy Disc
3.5.3 Hard Disc
3.5.5 Flash memory devices
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF LIBRARIES
4.1 Historical background of libraries
4.1.1 Ancient Libraries
4.12 Library of Assurbanipal 4.1.3 Library of Alexandria 4.1.4 Library of Pergarnon
4.2 Medieval Libraries
4.3 Libraries of the Muslim World
4.3.1 Kuttabkhanalp-Mehmodia (Madina) 4_3.2 Baitulhikmah (Baghdad)
4_3.3 Darul.iirn (Egypt)
4.3.4 Al-Hakam II (Spain)
TYPES of LIBRARIES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
5.1 National Library
5.2 Academic Libraries
5.3 Public Library
5.4 Special Libraries
5. S School Libraries
ROLE of UBRART IN MODERN SOCIETY
6.1 Role of Library in Society
6-2 Education and Research
6.3 Social Development
6.4 Recreational Activities
6.5 Libraries of Modern World 6.5.1 Library of Congress (US) 6.5.2 British Library (England)
6.5.3 Bibliotheca de National (France)
6.5.4 Leningrad State Library (Moscow)
6.5.5 University of Gottingen Library (Germany)
NATURE AND TYPES OF UBRARY MATERIALS
7.1.1 General Books
7.1.2 Reference Books
7.2.1 Serial Publications
7.2_3 Maps and cartographic Materials
7.3 Audio visual Material
7.3.1 Microforms 7.3.2 Films
7.3.4 Audio (Sound) Recordings
7.35 Video Recordings
7.4 Electronic Material
7.4.2 Online Databases
7.4.3 E — Publications
CHAPTERS USING BOOKS AND UBRARIES
111 Parts of the Book
$.1.1 Title Pages
111.2 Preliminary Pages 1.1.3 Body of the Text 2.1.4 Bibliography
2.2 Finding Relevant Information in a Book 1.3 Using Libraries
1.3.1 The Catalogue
2.3.2 The Call No.
$1313 Shelves Arrangements 2.3.4 Reference Desk
• 3_6 Issue and Return of gooks
UBRARIANSHIP IN PAKISTAN
9.1 History of Libraries in Pakistan 9.2 Library Education in Pakistan 9.3 Eminent Personalities
9.4 Library Associations in Pakistan
MAJOR LIBRARIES OF PAKISTAN
10_1 Punjab University Library Lahore 10.2 Punjab Public Library Lahore
10.3 National Library of Pakistan Islamabad 10.4 Quaid-e Aram Library Lahore
10.5 Liaqat Memorial library Karachi 10.6 Sandman Library Quetta
10.7 Nishter Public Library Peshawar 101 Central Library Be ha walnut
10.9 Sharns ul-Ulma Claude pota Public Library
10_10 State Bank of Pakistan library Karachi.
STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR GRADE XI