Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 6 Computer Security And Ethics Solved Exercise

Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 6 Computer Security And Ethics Solved Exercise

Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 6 Computer Security And Ethics Solved Exercise. Mardan Board (BISE) 9th Class Computer Science Notes for Mardan and Punjab Boards (Unit No. 6). Class 9 / IX / SSC-I / Matric. Download PDF Guide / Key Book written / composed by Mujeeb-ur-Rehman. These notices are in accordance with the latest syllabus / courses recommended by Mardan Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) Mardan and all the boards of KPK province.

Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 6 Computer Security And Ethics Solved Exercise
Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 6 Computer Security And Ethics Solved Exercise

UNIT 6

COMPUTER SECURITY AND ETHICS

SOLVED EXERCISE

Q.3 Fill in the blanks.

i. Computer security generally deals with processes, by which valuable data can be protected and preserved, in both their theoretical and practical aspects.

ii. The people who do cracking are called Crackers.

iii. Adware is advertising-supported software, which gets the online ads to play automatically.

iv. Spyware are malicious programs that collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habits and sites that have been visited by users.

v. Pirated software is unauthorized copy of legitimate software.

vi. Anti-spyware protects the computer against pop-ups, slow performance, and security threats caused by spyware and other unwanted software.

vii. Authentication mechanism is the process using which the system identifies legitimate users from unauthorized users.

  1. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number

ix. Multimodal Authentication is the act of using more than one authentication method when logging on to a server or a workstation.

x. Computers are the issues concerning the legal, professional, social, and moral responsibilities of computer professionals and end users.

Q.2 Select the correct choice for each question.

i. Which of the following refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network?

A. Robbery B. Theft C. ✓Cyber Crime D. Shop lifting

  1. What is gaining an unauthorized access to – computers or telecommunications systems called?
  2. ✓Hacking B. Cracking C. Lacking D. Tracking

iii. Which of the following is a kind of malicious software written intentionally to enter a computer without the user’s permission or knowledge?

A. Database B. Word processor

C. ✓Virus D. Antivirus

iv. Which of the following virus caused damages of more than $8 billion in 2000?

A. Hate Letter B. ✓Love Letter

C. Virus, letter D. Worm Letter

v. Which programs are ‘capable of locating, preventing, and ‘removing the malicious programs from a computer system?

A. Database B. Virus C. Word processor D: ✓ Antivirus vi. Which of the following should not be written down or shared with others?

A. ✓Password B. User ID

C. Program D. Data

vii. What types of cards are often used to gain entry into areas and buildings with restricted access?

A. Mobile cards B. Memory cards

C. ✓Access cards D. Wild cards

viii. Which form of authentication provides the physiological make-up of the human body and/or passwords?

.A-. Password B. User ID

C. PIN D. ✓Biometrics

ix. Which of the following has concern with the correct handling of personal information’?

A. ✓Accuracy B. Privacy

C. Authority D. Authentication

x. Which. Of the= following is the exclusive legal right that prohibits copying of intellectual property?

A. Legal right B. ✓Copyright

C. Book right D. All right

SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q.3 Give short answers to the following questions.

i. What is computer security?

Ans: Computer Security:

The term computer system security means the collective processes and mechanisms by which sensitive and valuable information and services are protected from publication, tampering or collapse by unauthorized activities or untrustworthy individuals and unplanned events respectively.

Computer security is a branch of computer technology known as information security as applied to computers and networks. The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster.

ii. What is the difference between a computer crime and a conventional crime?

Ans: Difference between a Computer Crime and a Conventional Crime:

The main difference between a traditional crime and a cybercrime are the tools used to complete the crime. In simple words, a thief would simply pick-pocket someone to steal wallet; a cyber-thief sits at home and sends an unsuspecting victim an e-mail scam (known as phishing) to steal your identity or credit card numbers. Furthermore, drug dealers may use encrypted emails to place orders for narcotics to their suppliers in neighboring countries. Gangsters can track their “jobs” through computer software applications and inventory their stolen property and list their victims. Cyber criminals may use secure software to remain anonymous and attempt to hide their IP address. Proxy servers allow cyber criminals to route their communications through several different locations or even countries. Because of this, it can be quite an exhausting challenge to track down cyber criminals.

iii. Differentiate between hacking and cracking.

Ans: Hacking:

Hacking is gaining an unauthorized access to computers or telecommunications systems. Sometimes hacking is done as a service to expose security flaws to companies or organizations. Whatever the motivation is, the system administrators view any kind of unauthorized access as a threat, and they usually try to pursue offenders vigorously.

Cracking:

Software cracking is the process of bypassing the registration and payment options on a software product to remove copy protection safeguards or to turn a demo version of software into a fully functional version without paying for it. Cracking software generally requires loading the executable into a hexadecimal code editor and directly modifying it. The executable is then run in place of the original.

iv. What is the difference between a virus and a worm?

Ans: Difference between a virus and a worm:

The main difference between a virus and worm is the manner in which it reproduces and spreads. A virus is dependent upon the host file or boot sector, and the transfer of files between computers to spread, whereas a .computer worm can execute completely independently and spread on its own accord through network connections. The security threat from worms is equivalent to that of viruses. Computer worms are skilled of doing an entire series of damage such as destroying crucial files in the system, slowing it down to a large degree, or even causing some critical programs to stop working

v. What is adware? How a user can get rid of and remove adware?

Ans: .Adware:

Adware is advertising-supported software, which gets the online ads to play automatically. It downloads itself without users’ knowledge or permission.

Getting-Ride off:

1. Be selective when downloading to compute:-

2. Reid licensing agreements

3. Watch out for anti-spyware scams

4 Beware of clickable advertisements.

Removing Adware:

1. By using Adware removal programs one can easily remove adware.

2. Perform a full scan. Adware Removal software will report any adware that it finds.

3. View the results of the scan after completion. Remove detective adware.

i. How virus spread through Internet in computers?

Ans: There are many ways that computer viruses spread. Sometime users know they are infected with a virus and most times they do not know. Spreading of viruses is due to a variety of means:

  • Through infected flash drives/ CD’s
  • Through Pirated software
  • Via Network and Internet
  • Through E-mail attachments

Differentiate between authentication and authorization.

Ans: Difference between Authentication and Authorization:

Authentication:

Authentication system is how users identify themselves to the computer: The goal behind an authentication system is to verify the user.

Authorization:

Authorization is finding out if the person, once identified, is permitted to have the resource. This is usually determined. by finding out if that person is a part of a particular group, if that person has been granted admission, or has a particular level of security clearance.

iii. Compare authorized access with unauthorized access.

Ans: Authorized Access:

  • Authorized access is the use of a computer or network with permission.
  • Authorized use is the use of a computer or its data for approved or possibly legal activities Unauthorized Access:
  • Unauthorized access is the use of computers and network without permission.
  • Unauthorized use is the use of a computer or its data for unapproved or illegal activities
  1. What is biometrics technology? Give one

Example

Ans: Biometrics:

Biometrics is a form of authentication that provides the physiological make up of the human body and/or passwords. Biometrics can use physical characteristics, like human face, fingerprints, irises, voice, handwriting or typing rhythm. Unlike keys and passwords, personal traits are extremely difficult to lose, forget or copy.

Examples:

a. Facial Recognition

b. Palm and Fingerprints

c. Iris Recognition

Protected and preserved, in both their theoretical and practical aspects. Computer Security was introduced in the 1970’s. The purpose of Computer Security is to secure a particular computer system from any kind of crime. Computer Security, therefore, aims at securing data, keeping them intact and also providing uninterrupted services.

Q.5, what is cybercrime? Explain different types of cybercrime.

Ans: Cybercrime:

Cybercrime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. Cybercrime may include:

  • Altering computer input in an unauthorized way.
  • Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions.
  • Altering or deleting stored data.
  • Altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages, or altering. Or writing code for fraudulent purposes.
  • Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information.

a. Hacking

Hacking is gaining an unauthorized access to computers or telecommunications systems. The professionals, who do hacking, are called hackers. Sometimes hacking is done as a service to expose security flaws to companies or organizations. Whatever the motivation is, the system administrators view any kind of unauthorized access as a threat, and they usually try to pursue offenders vigorously. Hackers are heavily fined as well as given imprisonment in the court of laws.

b. Cracking:

Software cracking is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software. Software cracking is the process of bypassing the registration and payment options on a software product to remove copy protection safeguards or to turn. a demo version of software into a fully functional version without paying for it. Cracking software generally requires loading the executable into a hexadecimal code editor and directly modifying it. The executable is then run in place of the original. Software cracking is considered illegal and cracked software is often called pirated software. Cracked software generally has had the executable modified and can cause undesirable behavior. The people who do cracking are called crackers.

Read More:

Q.6 “Virus is a great threat to computers”. Why? Explain different types of computer viruses.

Ans: Virus is a great threat to computers:

Virus is a great threat to computers because it enters a computer without the user’s permission or knowledge, with an ability to replicate itself, thus continuing to spread. Some viruses do little but others can replicate and cause severe harm or adversely affect program and performance of the system.

Types of Computer

Resident Viruses:

This type of virus is a permanent which dwells in the RAM memory. It corrupts files and programs that are opened, closed, copied, renamed etc.

Boot Virus:

This type of virus affects the boot sector of a hard disk, which is a crucial part of a disk.

Trojans or Trojan Horses:

A Trojan or Trojan horse is a destructive program that disguises itself as valuable and useful software available for down: oat on the internet. The software initially appears to perform a desirable function for the user prior to installation and/or execution, but perhaps in addition to the expected function, harms the system. Unlike viruses or worms, Trojans do not replicate themselves, but they can be just as harmful as viruses or worms.

Logic Bomb or Time Bomb virus:

A logic bomb is a piece of code intentionally inserted into software that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met. For example, a programmer may hide a piece of code that starts deleting files from company’s database. Viruses and worms often contain yogic bombs that execute at a pre-defined time or when some other condition is met. Such viruses attack their host systems on specific dates, such as Friday the 13th or April fool’s Day. Trojans that activate on certain dates are often called “time bombs”. Logic bombs go undetected until launched.

E-mail viruses:

An e-mail virus travels as an attachment to e-mail messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim’s e-mail address book. Some e-mail viruses don’t even require a double-click — they launch when you view the infected message in the pi view pane of your e-mail software.

Q.7 Write a note on spyware and malware.

Ans: Sol/ware:

Spyware are malicious programs that collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habits and sites that have been visited by users. They also interfere with users’ control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software and redirecting Web browser activity. Spyware have capabilities to change computer settings, resulting in slow connection speeds, different home pages, and/or loss of Internet connection or functionality of other programs.

Malware:

Mal-ware stands for malicious software that includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, dishonest adware, and other malicious and unwanted software or program. Destructive malware utilize popular communication tools to spread, including worms sent through email and instant messages, Trojan horses downloaded automatically from web sites, and virus-infected files downloaded from peer-to-peer connections. Malware works to remain unnoticed, either by actively hiding or by simply not making its presence on a system known to the user.

Q.8 what are different ways of spreading virus in computers?

Ans: Different ways of spreading virus:

There are many ways that computer viruses spread. Sometime users know they are infected with a virus and most times they do not know. Spreading of viruses is due to a variety of means:

a. Through infected flash drives/ CD’s

b. Through Pirated software

c. Via Network and Internet

d. Through E-mail attachments

a. Through infected flash drives/ CD’s:

These are the most common ways of virus spreading from one computer to the other. Through an infected computer, and using a CD/DVD or Flash drive, virus can easily be copied on them. Any use of these removable mediums, by any user, at any time in the future, will most likely to infect any computer it is used with. The only way to properly clean such infected medium is to perform a low-level format if possible.

b. Through Pirated Software:

Pirated software is unauthorized copy of legitimate software. Gaining illegal access to protected software by any means is also known as software piracy. CDs or disks may be infected with viruses that will damage the hard drive or cripple the entire network. Pirated software that contains viruses wastes company resources by damaging important data or files.

c. Via Networks and Internet:

Peer-to-Peer network, Local Area Networks (LAN), a Wide Area Network (WAN), Wireless Networks, and the Internet,-are all computer networks. They all have the same basic purpose; to share software, and information resources between two or more computers. Networks let users share flies, and wherever files are shared, viruses can be shared and spread too.

Other sources of viruses have been found to be the result of software downloads avp over the Internet. The Internet is also filled with “unofficial” software, pirated programs, and low-budget software from questionable sources that may be intentionally or unintentionally infected with viruses. Files downloaded directly from the Internet are: among the fastest growing sources of computer virus infections.

d. Through E-mail Attachments:

Most of the viruses that spread on the computer are delivered through attachments. These attachments are sent via email most often from people you know. E-mails infected with a virus usually appear like any normal email in the inbox. When the user opens the email and the attachment, the virus executes itself and will begin to in CT the computer system and other files on the computer and will erase or change information. Zinnia viruses may do very little harm or may cause n) harm at all. But other viruses may damage: orriput 2r badly.

Q.9 How a comp ter’virus affects a computer system? Elaborate your answer by listing various symptoms of 3n attack by viruses.

Ans: Computer:

There are a number of different ways a computer can become reflected with computer viruses spyware, and other unaware. Here is a list.

1. Opening e-mail attachments

2. Not running the latest updates

3. Pirating software, music, or movies

4. No antivirus spyware scanner installed

5. Downloading any infected software

Symptoms Computer Virus:

Here are a few symptoms that indicate the computer might be infected with a virus:

The computer runs more slowly than normal the computer stops responding or freezes often

The computer crashes and restarts every few minutes

The computer restarts on its own and then fails to run normally

Applications on the computer do not work correctly

• Disks or disk drives are inaccessible

• Users can not print correctly

• Users see unusual error messages

• Users see unreadable menus and dialog boxes

Q.10 how a computer can be protected against virus?

Ans: Protection against Viruses:

To prevent damages, virus protection and removal programs have become compulsory for the computer systems. Because Hew viruses are created constantly, virus protection is never guaranteed, but updated virus protection software is preferred. Antivirus and Antispyware software are a necessity today to ensure the security of the computer and personal information.

,a. Antivirus

Antivirus are programs which are capable of locating, preventing, and removing the malicious programs from a computer system. Antivirus Software, as the name itself suggests, have proved to be a very useful means of protecting computer systems from harmful viruses and worms, thereby, providing protection to the computer systems. Anti-virus software is designed to identify, prevent and eliminate harmful and malicious viruses.

b. Anti-Spyware

Antispyware software protects the computer against pop-ups, slow performance, and security threats caused by spyware and other unwanted software. To keep protecting from the latest spyware, users must keep the antispyware software updated.

Microsoft Security Essentials is a new, free consumer anti-malware solution for computers. It helps protect against viruses, spyware, and other malicious software.

Q.11 Explain different Authentication Methodologies in detail.

Ans: Authentication Methodologies:

With the many forms of authentication, administrators and information technology professiorMc lust select what will the best for them. While maintaining security, administrators must meet the security needs of their organization and the convenience of end users. The following are few important authentication methodologies.

a. Username and Password:

This method of authentication is familiar to everyone. The username often reflects the individual’s name. Authentication is based on a logical database that contains this information and an encrypted password. End users and administrators should use common sense when selecting a password for an operating system or application. Passwords need to be complex. Passwords should contain alphanumeric characters and symbols. Passwords should not be written down or shared.

b. Personal Identification Number (PIN):

A personal identification number (PIN) is a secret numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system. Typically, the user is required to provide a non-confidential user identifier or token (the user ID) and a confidential PIN to gain access to the system. Upon receiving the user ID and PIN, the system looks up the PIN. Based upon the user ID and compares the looked-up PIN with the received PIN. The user is granted access only when the number entered matches with the number stored in the system. Hence, despite the name, a PIN does not personally identify the user. PINs are most often used for automated teller machines (ATMs) but are increasingly used at the point of sale, for debit cards and credit cards.

c. Access cards:

Access cards or Security pass cards are often used to gain entry into areas and buildings with restricted access. The access cards may be for general access, meaning that the card does not provide data about the person using it, or it may be individually encoded, containing specific information about the cardholder.

d. Biometrics:

This form of authentication provides the physiological make-up of the human body and/or passwords. Today, most laptops come with fingerprint biometrics readers. Biometrics can use physical characteristics, like human face, fingerprints, irises, or behavioral characteristics like human voice, handwriting or typing rhythm. Unlike keys and passwords, personal traits are extremely difficult to lose or forget. They can also be very difficult to copy. For this reason, many people consider them to be safer and more secure than keys or passwords.

Q.12 what are computer ethics? Give a sample code of conduct suggested by the Computer Ethics Institute (CEO.

Ans: Computer Ethics:

Computer ethics are the issues concerning the legal, professional, social, and moral responsibilities of computer professionals and end users. Ethics, in the classical sense, refers to the rules and standards governing the conduct of an individual with others. As technology and computers became more and more a part of our everyday lives, and since the introduction of the World Wide Web, the definition of ethics has evolved immensely in our society. A new type of ethics known as computer ethics has emerged. Computer ethics is concerned with standards ‘of conduct as they pertain to computers. It deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. Basically Computer ethics just know the difference between ethical and unethical.

Sample Code of Conduct:

A sample code of conduct suggested by the Computer ethics Institute (CEI) is iisted below as guidelines for the use of computers:

1. Do not use computer to harm other people.

2. Do not interface with other people’s computer work.

3. Do not snoop around in other people’s computer files.

4. Do not use a computer to steal.

5. Do not use a computer to bear false witness.

6. Do not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.

7. Do not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.

8. Do not appropriate other people’s intellectual output.

9. Always think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing.

10. Always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.

Q.14 Explain different areas of computer ethics.

Ans: Areas of Computer Ethics:

The following are few major areas of computer ethics.

a. Information Accuracy

b. Copyright and Intellectual property rights

c. Software Piracy

d. Information Privacy

a. Information Accuracy:

Information accuracy concerns with the correct handling of ‘personal information’, that is, information about a particular person or organization to identify their particulars to others. The accurate use of such information is essential to businesses, non-profit organizations, consumers• and government. Information can be shared and used by more than one person at the same time, and it can be used for an unlimited number of different purposes. These characteristics give rise to the fundamental ideas behind information accuracy. Organizations or individuals handling personal information have a responsibility to do so fairly, and that the subjects of personal information retain some rights in relation to the way it may be used (or collected or stored or disclosed) by others.

b. Copyright and Intellectual Property rights:

Property generally used to mean a possession, or more specifically, something to which the owner has legal rights. You might have also encountered the phrase intellectual property. This term has become more commonplace during the past few years, especially in the context of computer ethics. Intellectual property refers to creations of the intellect. It may include inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs, etc. Intellectual property is usually divided into two branches, namely industrial property and copyright.

Industrial property includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, commercial names, designations and geographic indications (location specific brands) etc.

Copyright is the exclusive legal right that prohibits copying of intellectual property without the permission of the copyright holder.

c. Software Piracy:

Software piracy is the illegal copying of the copyright or licensed software. In this a licensed copy of software is purchased and then a large number of copies of this software are prepared and sold in the market. Software piracy is morally bad when someone reproduces a copy of the software and sells it for profit, produces exactly the same or similar version without giving proper credit to the original author, or simply produces it and distributes it to others. It is not immoral to copy the software if someone who has a licensed copy of the software and simply makes a backup copy of the original. One back-up copy of the commercial software can be made, but the backup copy cannot be used except when the original package fails or is destroyed.

d. Information Privacy:

Information privacy, also called data privacy is the relationship between collection and distribution of data, technology and the other issues related to them.

Privacy concerns exist wherever personally identifiable information is collected and stored —in digital form or otherwise. Improper or non-existent disclosure control can be the root cause for privacy issues. Data privacy issues can arise in response to information from a wide range of sources, such as:

• Healthcare records

• Criminal justice investigations and proceedings

• Financial institutions and transactions

• Biological traits, such as genetic material

• Residence and geographic records

Q.14 why antivirus software is necessary for a computer?

Ans: Antivirus is a utility program used to avoid computer virus. It is designed to check the disk, USB drive, RAM and E-mail attachments for virus. Besides detecting and removing virus; effective antivirus also helps in recovery of the data that has been corrupted or lost because of a virus. Today antivirus is essential for every computer to be installed on it, without antivirus software a computer can be infected within minutes because of the Internet. The computer viruses are growing so those antivirus companies constantly update their virus definition database, detection tools and removal tools.

Q.15 Write down steps to install Antivirus software. Ans: Installing Avant Antivirus:

1. Download Avast Free Antivirus 2015 from www.avast.com

2. Right-click the downloaded setup files avast_free_antivirus_setup_online.exe and choose Run as administrator.

3. The Avast Setup wizard appears. Choose r license type and the setup mode.

a. Select Regular installation for quicker setup with default options.

b. Select Custom installation to select the location of program files, and choose program components and languages on the following screens.

4. Confirm all selections until the installation progress bar appears.

5. Once the installation is completed, click Done to exit setup.

Q.16 Write short note on:

a) Worm b) Adware

a. Worm:

Computer worms are programs that reproduce, execute independently and travel across the network connections. The key difference between a virus and worm is the manner in which it reproduces and spreads. The security threat from worms is equivalent to that of viruses. Computer worms are skilled of doing an entire series of damage such as destroying crucial files in the system, slowing it down to a large degree, or even causing some critical programs to stop working.

b. Adware

Adware is advertising-supported software, which gets the online ads to play automatically. It downloads itself without users’ knowledge or permission. These programs overload the system and enter a code that could suddenly make the content of the computer open to the world.

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