Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Operating System Solved Exercise

Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Operating System Solved Exercise

Class 9th Notes Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Operating System Solved Exercise. Chapter 2 9th Class Computer Science Long Questions, Short Questions, Exercises and MCQs are noted. Download all chapters in PDF format now. Download New Curriculum Class 9th Computer Science Note All Chapter PDF Format Now.

Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Operating System Solved Exercise
Class 9th Computer Science Notes Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Operating System Solved Exercise

UNIT 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

SOLVED EXERCISE

Q.1 Fill in the blanks.

i. Operating system is a set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities of the computer.

ii. The main job of Operating System is to manage the hardware and software resources of the system.

iii. Many users can work in a networking environment.

iv. The Operating System acts as a bridge between the user and the computer.

v. DOS was the first widely-installed operating system for personal computers.

vi. Menu contains lists of options on the screen that lead to other screens.

vii. In GUI interface user selects command choices from various menus, buttons and icons using a Mouse.

viii. Microsoft was the first to introduce the idea of an operating system which was named as Windows in November 1985.

ix. Batch processing system requires the operating system to work through a series of programs/tasks in a queue.

x. In Windows My Documents is the default personal folder for storing data.

xi. Folder is a named collection of related files that can be retrieved, moved, and manipulated as one entity.

Q.2 Select the correct choice for each question.

i. Which of the following is a command driven multi-user and multi-tasking operating system for servers and desktops, developed in the 1960s?

a. Windows B. 1/UNIX

C. DOS D. Netware

ii. Which interface consists of a series of screens to navigate by choosing options from lists, menus?

A. Command driven B. GUI

C. ✓Menu driven D. List driven

iii. By whom the Macintosh computer (often called “the Mac”), was introduced in 1984?

A. ✓Apple Computer B. IBM

C. Mango Computer D. BMW

iv. Which of the following is an updated form of UNIX operating system?

A. Windows’s B. ✓UNIX

C. DOS D. Netware

v. Which of the following operating system allows a user to work in a single program at any given time?

A. ✓Single user B MuIt: user

C. Mul’: t3sking D. Real time

vi. Which operating system is a multitasking system that is designed to give immediate response to an event?

A. Batch processing B. Multiuser

C. Time sharing D. ✓Real time

vii. In Windows which folder keeps files that have been deleted, whether accidentally or

intentionally?

A. My Computer B. My documents

C. ✓Recycle bin D. My Files

viii. Which program is used to view Internet sites/pages?

A. ✓Internet Explorer B. Web Viewer

C. Word D. Excel

ix. Which of the following is a collection of related information, or resource for storing information?

A. Folder B. ✓File

C. Document D. Drive

x. Which program protects computer from many common viruses and Trojans which can be harmful for the system?

A. Internet Explorer B. Excel

C. Word D. ✓Antivirus

SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q3. Give short answers to the following questions. i. Write objectives of an operating system.

Ans: An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities of the computer. The operating system is like a manager for the computer system. It is the program that manages all the other programs on the computer. A good OS has the following main features.

  • Convenience — makes computer user friendly.
  • Efficiency — allows computer to use resources efficiently.
  • Ability to evolve — constructed in a way to permit effective development, testing and introduction of new functions.

List main features of Linux operating system.

Ans: Main features of Linux:

1. Linux is a GUI operating system.

2. Linux is as user friendly as Windows.

3. Linux Desktop looks much like a Windows Desktop.

4. Linux is a free open-source operating system.

5. Linux is a very powerful operating system and it is gradually becoming popular throughout the world.

iii. What is time sharing processing system?

Ans: Time Sharing Processing System:

It is a type of processing system in which a number of users at different terminals simultaneously use a single computer for different purpose-s. In time sharing processing systems the processing capabilities of a single powerful computer are shared among multiple users or processes. This involves CPU allocating individual slice of time to -, number of users on the computer system.

Define file and folder.

Ans: File:

A file is a collection of related information, or resource for storing information. It can be stored permanently on backing storage device like a hard disk.

Folder:

A folder is a collection of related files that can e retrieved, moved, and manipulated as one objet. It can be used to store and manage files or sub-folders. A folder within a folder is called a sub-folder. A folder may contain many sub-folders.

v. Differentiate between Copy and Cut command.

Ans: The cut command removes the selected data from its original position, while the copy command creates a duplicate of the selected data; in both cases the selected data is placed in a clipboard. The data in the clipboard is retrieved in the position where the paste command is applied.

  1. What is purpose of office automation software?

Ans: Office Automation:

The use of computer systems to execute a variety of office operations, such as word processing, accounting, and e-mail. Office automation almost always implies a network of computers with a variety of available programs.

Purpose of office automation:

Use of modern office automation in business and other organizations facilitate faster processing and delivery of information, accurate analysis of facts and figures, higher efficiency and productivity, and elimination of fatigue arising from performing repetitive jobs manually.

vii. Why antivirus software is necessary for a computer?

Ans: Antivirus is a utility program used to avoid computer virus. It is designed to check the disk, USB drive, RAM and E-mail attachments for virus. Besides detecting and removing virus; effective antivirus also helps in recovery of the data that has been corrupted or lost because of a virus.

LONG QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q.4 What is an operating system? Explain some common tasks or functions of an operating system.

Ans: Operating System:

An operating system is the system software, which is responsible for the management of a wide variety of computer operations and also the sharing of computer resources. An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities of the computer. It is the program that manages all the other programs on the computer. Operating system works in the background and most of the time the user will not be aware of what it is doing.

Task or Functions of Operating System:

Some Common functions of Operating Systems are:

1. Memory Management:

Computer systems have different types of memories such as temporary as well as permanent memories or storages It is the job of an Operating System to allocate the relevant and necessary memory space to the applications and devices for efficient and optimum processing of information. The operating system handles the allocation and management of memory that programs use.

2. I/O Management:

Managing the inputs and outputs of various devices is also one of the critical functions of Operating Systems. With the help of device drivers, the Operating System controls flow of information with the necessary allocation of system resources to ensure correct input and output. Operating systems provide a supervision of the input/output devices that are connected to a computer system.

3. Files Management

Operating system provides a file management service which allows the user to locate and manipulate the various programs and data files which are stored on the hard disk. The operating system keeps track of the locations of all ‘the files. If a user wants to move, rename or delete a file, the operating system manages such changes and helps the user locate and gain access of it.

4. Resource Management

Operating system manages different computer resources like CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices. A process is a program in execution. In general, a process will need certain resources to accomplish its task. These resources are allocated to the process either when it is created, or while it is executing by the operating system. This involves ensuring that all the system resources receive sufficient processes time for expected functioning.

5. Users Management

Many users can work in a networking environment. User management is a critical part of maintaining a secure system. Operating systems also provide protection policies that ensure privacy and prevent damage to information contained within the computer system. This is achieved through the use of access rights given to the multiple users.

Q.5 Explain the following types of operating systems.

i. Command line interface (CLI)

ii. Menu driven interface (MDI)

iii. Graphical user interface (GUI)

Ans:

  1. Command line interface (CLI):

A command line interface is one in which user types in commands to make the computer do something. Users have to know the commands and what they do and they have to be typed correctly. DOS and UNIX are examples of command line interface systems.

  1. Menu driven interface (MDI)

An interface consisting of a series of screens which are navigated by choosing options from lists, i.e. menus. Menu contains lists of options on the screen that lead to other screens. Because of their simplicity, menu-driven interfaces are commonly used for walk-up-and-use systems, such ps information booths and ATMs. Novell Netware is the example of an old menu driven interface operating system.

  1. Graphical user interface (GUI)

A graphical user interface (GUI) is one in which a user selects command choices from various_ menus, buttons and icons using a Mouse. It is a user-friendly interface. The graphical representation of commands is much easier to understand and use. In 1984, the Apple Company introduced the first GUI computer, the Macintosh. Windows and Linux are examples of GUI operating systems.

Q.6 Write short note on the following.

i. DOS ii. UNIX

iii. Macintosh iv. Windows

Ans:

i. DOS (Disk Operating System):

DOS (Disk Operating System) was the first widely-installed operating system for personal computers. DOS is a non-graphical command line operating system created for IBM compatible computers. Although the DOS operating system is not commonly used today, the command shell is used through Microsoft Windows to support existing DOS applications. Unlike Microsoft Windows, DOS requires the user to type commands instead of using a mouse.

UNIX

UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s. It is a command driven multi-user and multi-tasking system for servers and desktops.

The UNIX operating system is made up of three

parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs.

The kernel is the hub of the operating system. It allocates time and- memory to programs and handles the file store and communications in response to system calls.

The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel.

The programs are the currently running applications.

iii. Macintosh

The Macintosh . (often called “the Mac”), introduced in 1984 by Apple Computer, was the first widely-sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). The Mac has “user-friendly” computer interface. This includes the mouse, the use of icons or small visual images to represent objects or actions.

iv. Windows

Windows is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Operating System which contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse. Microsoft was the first to introduce the idea of an operating system which was named as Windows in November 1985 as an attachment. to the MS-DOS in reply to the increasing curiosity in Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs). The latest versio:-..,f

Q.7 Explain single user and multi user operating systems with examples.

Ans: Single User Operating System:

A single-user operating system is an operating system (OS) that allows a single at any given time. There are two general types of single-user operating systems:

(i) A Single task — single user OS:

A single task — single user operating system allows a user to work in a single program at any given time.

(ii) Multitasking — single user OS:

In multitasking single — user OS can run multiple applications and programs at once. This is often used on computers where someone may wish to navigate the Internet, run a graphics editing program, play music through a media playing program, and type in notes in a simple word processing program all simultaneously.

Examples:

MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows ME.

Multi — Users Operating System:

A multi-user operating system allows more than one user to use the computer’s resources simultaneously at the same time.

A .multi-user operating system is often used in

Businesses and offices where different users need to access the same resources, but these resources cannot be installed on every system. In a multi-user operating system, the OS must be able to handle the various needs and requests of all of the users effectively.

Examples:

UNIX, Linux, Windows 2000 and Windows Server Family

Q.8 Explain different components/features of graphical user interface (GUI).

Ans: GUI (Graphical User Interface):

GUI allows the use of icons or other visual indicators to interact with electronic dev!,-:Ps; rather than using only text via the command line. This makes it easier for people with little computer skills to operate the computer.

Components/features of GUI:

A GUI combines four components which Window, Icon, Menu and Pointer.

(a) Windows: All the information displayed on the screen is presented inside a window.

(b) Icons: Small graphical symbols known as icons are used to represent files, folders, drives, programs and commands. Icon is used to select an action.

(c) Menus: Menus present various commands from which the user makes a selection with a pointing device.

(d) Pointer: A pointer is often shaped like an arrow or a small hand with the index finger pointing towards the top of the display device. The mouse pointer moves as the user moves the mouse. The pointer is used for performing different tasks such as selecting an option or opening a file, folder or program.

EXTRA OUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q.1 Write a short note on Novell Netware.

Ans: Novell NetWare is a menu driven network operating system developed by Novell, Inc in 1983. It is a network operating system for use on servers. Novell provides simple but powerful text- based menus on the command line for the configuration.

Q.2 Explain the following types of operating system. • i. Batch Processing System

  1. Time Sharing Processing System
  2. Real time Processing system

Ans:

  1. Batch Processing System:

It is a processing system which requires the operating system to work through a series of tasks in a queue. The operating system is responsible for scheduling the jobs according to priority and the resources they require. It takes full advantage of the processor’s capabilities. The drawbacks are that undesired commands may be executed without the user’s knowledge.

  1. Time Sharing Processing System:

This type o’ processing system is used where a number of users at different terminals simultaneously use a single computer for different purposes. In time sharing processing systems the processing capabilities of a single powerful. Computer, are shared among multiple users or processes. As the number of users increases the response time for each terminal declines.

Real time Processing system

Real-time operating system is a multitasking system that is designed to give immediate response to an event. These are found within environments where computers have to give immediate or online response to users.

Q.3 what is an icon? Describe basic icons of GUI operating system.

Ans: Icon:

An icon is an informative picture or symbol displayed on the screen which the user chooses to select an action. Icons can usually be used to represent software packages, documents and hardware devices.

Basic Icons of GUI Operating System:

  1. Computer: Computer icon is the source of all resources in the computer including drives, control panel and data.

(b) Recycle bin: It keeps files that have been deleted, whether accidentally or intentionally. Users can restore the contents of Recycle Bin before deleting the items permanently.

(c) Control Panel: Control Panel is virtually the control center of the computer. It allows users to change settings for programs, hardware devices, set up network connections and user accounts etc. Basically it is used to custom the computer.

(d) Network: This icon is used to view and set the network resources of the computer.

Q4. Write down steps for creating a new folder on the desktop.

Ans: Steps for creating new folder:

1. Right click anywhere on the desktop. The “Right Click” menu will-appear.

2. Select “New” command from the menu.

3. Click “Folder” option from the “New” menu, a folder will be created.

4. GiVe a name to the folder.

S. Press “Enter” key. The new folder will be created with the desired name.

5. Write down steps to copy and paste a file or folder.

Ans: Steps to Copy and Paste a File/Folder:

1. Select the folder/file to be copied and right click it.

2. Select the “Copy” command from the menu. The folder is copied to the clipboard.

3. Move the mouse pointer to the destination folder or location and right click it.

4. Select the “Paste” command from the menu.

5. The folder will be pasted there.

Q6. Write down steps to drag and drop a file or folder.

Ans: Steps to Drag and Drop a File/Folder:

1. Select the folder/file to be dragged and keep on pressing the left mouse button on it.

Drag the file/folder by moving the mouse, while the left mouse button is still pressed, to the desti ation folder/location.

3. Release the button.

4. The folder/file is dropped and copied to the new folder/location.

Q7. Write down steps to drag and drop a file or folder.

Ans: Steps to Cut a File/Folder and Paste it:

1. Select the folder/file to be cut and right click on it.

2. Select the Cut command from the menu. The folder is cut

3. Move the mouse pointer to the destination folder/location and right click on it.

4. Select the Paste command from tht_ 1.enu. The folder will be pasted

Q8. Write down steps to delete a folder or file. Ans: Steps to Cut a file/folder and Paste it:

1. Select the folder/file to be deleted and right-click on it.

2. Select the Delete command from the menu. The folder/file is deleted.

OR

Press “Delete” key on the Keyboard and then press “Enter” key to confirm delete operation.

Q9. What steps are involved in Installing Windows 7 Operating System?

Ans: The steps involved in installation of Windows 7:

1. Turn on the computer and insert the Windows 7 DVD and boot the computer. Make sure DVD is set as the first boot device.

2. When the install screen appears, select the Language, Time and currency format, Keyboard or input method and click Next.

3. Click Install now in the next screen to start installation of Windows 7.

4. Check ( ) I accept the license terms box and click Next in the next screen.

5. Click Upgrade if a previous version is already installed or Custom (advanced) to install Windows 7.

6. Select the drive to install Windows in the next screen.

7. Windows will install the items shown in the next screen and during the installation computer will restart many times.

8. Enter the user name in the text box in the setup screen and click Next. The computer name will be automatically filled up.

9. If you want to set a password for your computer, type a password in the text box and click Next.

10. Enter the product key and click Next.

11. Click the desired option for Windows update.

12. Select the time zone, set the time and date and click Next in the screen.

13. Select your computer’s network location.

14. When the Windows installation completes, computer will be ready for use.

viii. Spreadsheet application displays data in multiple cells usually in a two-dimensional matrix or grid consisting of rows and columns.

ix. Workbook is the Excel file that stores users’ information and may contain numerous worksheets.

x. Rows are the horizontal divisions of a worksheet that are identified by numbers.

xi. , Charts are graphic presentations of data from a worksheet.

Q.2 Select the correct choice for each question.

i. Where is Microsoft Office Button located in Word window?

A. Top-right B. Bottom-right

C. ✓-fop-left D. Bottom-left

ii. How many Tabs are there in Word 2007 window?

A. ‘, Seven B. Eight

C. Nine D. Ten

Which layout gives the view of the document as it appears in a web browser?

A. Print 79 B. Page Units3

C. ✓Web D. Outline

iv. What is the zoom range of a Word document offered through ZoOm Slider?

A. 10% – 200% B. 10% – 300%

C. 10% – 400% D. ✓10% – 500%

v. Which of the following commands is used to .create a new document in Word?

A. siNevv B. Create

C. Open D. List

vi. Which of the following keyboard shortcuts is used to open Print dialog .box?

A. Ctrl + S B., letrl P

C. Ctr! + N D. Ctrl +T

vii. In Word document which option is used to move text from one place (source) to another place (destination)?

A. Cut-Print B. Copy-Print

C.-Copy-Paste D. ✓Cut-Paste

viii. Which of the following alignment option justifies? Text equal on both sides and lines up equally to

The right and left-margins?

A. L> B. Right

C. D. Center

Which of the following break options move text to a new page before reaching the end of a page?

A. ✓Page break B. Section break

C. Line break D. Column break

x. Which of the following are the blank spaces around the edges of the page?

A. Header B. Footer

C. ✓Page Margins D. Alignment

Xi What is a piece of text or an image in a document that can connect readers to another portion of the document or a web gage called?

A. Margin B. ✓ilyperlink

C. File D. Web page

SHORT QUEST’) $S AND ANSWERS

Q.3 rive short answers to the following questions. i. Define a Word processor.

Ans: Word Processor:

Word Processor is application software used for the composition, editing, formatting, and printing of documents. Word Processors are used to create and edit various kinds of documents such as memos, letters, notes, books, re.wspapers, magazines and advertisements. They can also be used to add images, sounds, charts and graphics in documents. They also have the capabilities of removing spelling and grammatical mistakes from documents.

Examples:

MS Word, Word Perfect, Oper Office Word, Text Edit

ii. Give few examples of Word processing software.

Ans: Word processing:

A word processor is a compu-, er software application, which performs tre task of composition, editing, formatting, and sometimes printing of documents.

Examples of Word Processing Software:

Microsoft Word, Word Perfect, Open Office Word and Text Edit are different word processing applications. is Microsoft Word is one of the moLt widely used word processing software which is part of Microsoft Office Suite. Another widely used one is WordPerfect by the Corel Corporation. A third one is Writer, which is part of Open Office by Apache. Text Edit is word processor designed for Mac operating system.

iii. Differentiate between Save and Save As command.

Ans: Difference between Save and Save As:

If a document is saved for the first time then there is no difference between “Save” and “Save As” command. The difference between the two comes about on subsequent saving of the document.

Save:

Simply saves your work by updating the last saved version of the file to match the current version _ seen on the screen.

Save As:

Brings up a “Save As” dialog box tc save current file as a new file with a different name or iocation.

H. How you can insert a symbol in a Word document?

Ans: insert a Symbol in a Document:

1. on the “Insert” tab, in the “Symbols” group, dick

2. The arrow next to Symbols, and then click “More Symbols”. Symbol dialog box appears.

3. Click the arrow next to the name of the symbol subject, and then click the name of the symbol that is required to display.

4. Click the insert button to insert the symbol in the document.

v. Give the importance of page break and section break in a Word document.

Ans: Page breaks: Move text to a new page before reaching the end of a page,

Section breaks:

Create a barrier between parts… of the document for for formatting purposes.

Importance:

The page breaks and sections breaks in MS-Word help control the page layout of documents. Pages breaks are used to start text on a new page. Section breaks are used to allow formatting changes.

vi. How a user can insert header, footer and page break in a Word document?

Ans: Insert a Header or Footer:

• Select the “Insert” tab.

  • Click either the “Header” or `Tooter” command. A menu appears with a list of built-in options.

• Click one of the built-in options and it will appear in the document.

Insert a Page Break:

• Place the cursor where the user wants the break to appear.

  • Select the “Page Layout” tab.
  • Click the “Breaks” command.

• Click a break option to select it. The break will appear in the document„

  1. What is Word Art?

Ans: WordArt is a gallery of decorative text styles that user can add to the documents to create decorative effects, such as shadowed or mirrored text. User can also convert existing text into WO7dArt.

  1. What is the use of hyperlink in a Word document?

Ans: Use of Hyperlink:

Adding hyperlinks to text can provide access to websites and email addresses directly from a word document. There are a few ways to insert hyperlink ir-ito document. Depending on how the link is to be appeared, Word’s automatic tin’ formatting can be used or convert an existing tex-i into a link. Hyperlinks have two basic parts: the address (URL) of the webpage and the display text.

  1. What is a function? Explain different parts function with one example.

Ans: Function:

A function is a predefined formula that performs calculations using specific values in a particular order.

Parts of a Function

Each function has a specific order as follows:

Equal =equal) sign: All functions begin with •

The = sign.

DefinitiOn: Defines the ‘function name (e.g., = Sum).

Is

Argument: An argument is the cell range or cell references that are enclosed by parentheses.

Example: = SUM (A4:A8)

A function with one argument to add a range cf cells, 44 through A4 to AS.

x. What is the purpose of using Urdu editor?

Arts: Urdu editor is application software to create documents in Urdu language.

These software are very useful to develop documents like Urdu Newspapers, Magazines, Pamphlets and Leaflets. These software offer-many features like fonts, font styles, font sizes, page layouts. etc. There a;–e different types. of • Urdu editors avaiable lik katib, InPege, Urdu

LONG QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q.4 Label different parts of the following Word window.

Ans:

lornce button, Quick access liLic bar

. ‘ 19.Q1Pkir -AU110, 1,

Tabs

Fiiobon

Rok-r

Ciroupt,’

6cro! bnr

.rrsenton Po, e

Docurnen ( _ Shindow

ZOOM

Q.5 Explain different cmponents of Word window Ans.: Word window components

1. The Title bar:

It is the topmost oar. It displays the Quick Access Toolbar at left, the name of the current document at the center and Control Buttons at right side.

2. The Ribbon:

It is located below the Title bar. It has seven tabs; clicking a tab displays several related command Groups. Each group contains related command buttons.

The seven Tabs are Home, Insert, Page Layout, References, Mailings, Review, and View. Each Tab contains several groups, for example Home tab contains five groups; Clipboard, Font, Paragraph, Styles and Editing.

3. The Microsoft Office button:

It is located at the top left side of the Word window. It is used to peKorm many of the functions like create a new document, open an existing document, save a document and Print a document.

4. The Quick Access Toolbar:

it is located next to the Microsoft Office button. It contains different commands for quick access like Save, Undo, and Redo, etc.

5. Document View Buttons:

These buttons are located at bottom next to Zoom slider. They are used to view a document in four different layouts. These are: Print Layout, Full Screen Reading, Web Layout and Outline.

6. The Ruler:

The horizontal and vertical rulers in Word are often used to align text, graphics, tables, and other elements in a document.

7. Document window:

It is the area which is used to create the document. User can enter text, images, etc in this area. It is the main document area.

8. The Vertical and Horizontal Scroll Bars:

They are used to move around the document vertically and horizontally.

9. Zoom Slider:

It is used to Zoom in or Zoom out the view of the document. The Zoom range varies from 10% to 500%.

10. The Status Bar:

It is located at the bottom of the Word window. It gives information about the present status of the document.

Q.6 Define the following.

Spreadsheet, Workbook, Worksheet, cell, Cell address, Cell reference, Formula, Function, Chart

Ans: Spreadsheet:

Spreadsheet is the general term for application which is used to enter, analyze, and calculate data. It performs mathematical calculations and projections based on data entered. Common spreadsheet uses include analysis, charting, and budgeting.

Examples:

Microsoft Excel, Calc, Lotus 1-2-3 and Plan Maker are all examples of spreadsheet applications.

Workbook:

A workbook is the Excel file that stores users’ information. Each workbook may contain numerous worksheets.

Worksheet:

A worksheet is an electronic spreadsheet that lets users enter, analyze, and calculate data. Within a workbook, worksheets can share information, and calculations pertaining to several worksheets can be performed at one time. The default number of worksheets in a new workbook is three.

Cell:

A cell is the intersection of a row and a column. A cell can contain a label, a numeric value, or a formula.

Cell Address:

A cell address is the location of a cell on a worksheet and is defined by the column letter and the row number. For example, cell Al is where column A and row 1 intersect.

Cell References:

A cell reference, or cell address, identifies a particular cell, such as cell B5. Cell references are used in formulas to indicate where a value is stored.

Formula:

A formula is an expression entered in a cell that performs numeric calculation, logical comparison, or text string manipulation.

Function:

A function is a preset formula. Functions consist of the function name and its arguments. The function name tells Excel what calculation you want it to perform.

Chart:

A chart is also known as graph. It is a graphical representation of data, in which “the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart”. A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structure and provides different info.

EXTRA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Q.1 Write the procedure for performing the following tasks.

  1. Creating a Document
  2. Saving a Document
  3. Opening a Saved Document

Ans:

a. Creating a Document

  • Click “New” command in

“Microsoft Office” button menu.

  • “New Document” dialog box will appear.
  • Double-click the “Blank Document” option OR Click on Create button.

b. Saving a document:

.1 Click the Microsoft Office-Button and Click “Save”. If the document is being saved for the first time then specify location and enter name, for file in File Name field. Now click “Save” button. OR

  • Press CTRL+S on the keyboard, OR
  • Click the Save icon on the Quick Access Toolbar
  • How down the left mouse button and drag the cursor to the end of the text
  • Release the Mouse button

2. Selecting Text with Keyboard:

A Keyboard can also be used to select words,sentences and paragraphs.

  • Move the cursor to the beginning of the word,sentence or paragraph that is to be selected
  • Hold down the Shift key and press right Arrow key to move to the end of the word, sentence or paragraph
  • The selected text gets highlighted in the document.

Q.3 how text can be deleted from a document?

Ans: Deleting Text:

Deleting text means to remove it from the document. Text can be deleted using Backspace and Delete keys on the keyboard. User can delete a word, a sentence or a paragraph. The main difference between Backspace key and Delete key is that Backspace key erases one character to the left of cursor and Delete key erases one character to the right of the cursor. To delete text,

  • Select the text to be deleted
  • Press Delete or backspace key on the keyboard

Q.4 Explain the use of Equation Edit& in Word document?

Ans: Use of Equation Editor:

Equation editor can be used to write a mathematical equation.

  • On the “Insert” tab, in the Symbols group, click the arrow next to Equations, and then click Insert New Equation.
  • “Type” an equation.

Q.5 what is formatting? Explain different types of formatting.

Ans: Formatting:

The practice of designing and making document effective by changing the fon:: size, style, and color; and using the Bold, Italic, Underline, and Change Case is called formatting text. Paragraph formatting and page formatting also play an important role in making document effective. In Word, formatting is classified into the following types.

1. Text Formatting

2. Paragraph Formatting

3. Page Formatting

1. Text Formatting:

Text fcrmatting includes formatting the font size, style, and color; and using the Bold, Italic, Underline, and Change Case commands. User can format a single 41aracter, word, line, paragraph or whole document.

a. To Format Text Font Size:

  • Select the text to modify:
  • Click the drop-down arrow next to the font size box on the Home tab. The font size drop-down mEnu appears.
  • Move the cursor over the various font sizes. Click the Font size you wish to use. The font size will change in the document.

b. To Format Font Style:

  • Select the text to modify.
  • Click the drop-down arrow next to the font style box on the Home tab. The font style drop-down menu appears.
  • Move the cursor over the various font styles.
  • Click the font style you wish to use. The font style will change in the document.

C:To Format Font Color:

  • Select the text to modify.
  • Click the drop-down arrow next to the font color box on the Home tab. The font color menu appears.
  • Move the cursor over the various font colors. le Click the font color to use. The font color will change in the document.

d. To Bold, Italic, and Underline:

  • Select the text to modify.

• Click the Bold, Italic, or Underline command in the Font group on the Home tab.

  • To Change the Text Case
  • Select the text to modify.
  • Click the Change Case command in the Font group on the Home tab.
  • Select one of the case options from the list. 2. Paragraph Formatting:

Formatting paragraphs allows users to change the look of the overall document. User can access many of the tools of paragraph formatting by clicking the Page Layout Tab of the Ribbon or the Paragraph Group on the Home Tab of the Ribbon

a. Change Paragraph Alignment:

The paragraph alignment allows user to set how the text to appear.

  • Click the Home Tab
  • Choose the appropriate button for alignment on the Paragraph Group i.e. Align Text Left, Center, Align Text Right, or Justify.

b. Indent Paragraphs:

Indenting paragraphs allows users set text within a paragraph at different margins.

  • Click the Indent buttons to control the indent.
  • Click the Indent button repeated times to increase the size of the indent.
  • Click the dialog box of the Paragraph Group.
  • Click the Indents and Spacing Tab
  • Select your indents

c. Add Borders and Shading:

Users can add borders and shading to paragraphs and entire pages.

  • To create a border around a paragraph or paragraphs:

Select the area of text where you want the border or shading.

  • Click the Borders Button on the Paragraph Group on the Home Tab.
    • Choose the Border and Shading
    • Choose the appropriate options

d. Change Spacing between Paragraphs and Lines: Users can change the space between lines and paragraphs by doing the following: .

  • Select the paragraph or paragraphs to change.
  • On the Home Tab, Click the Paragraph Dialog Box.
  • Click the Indents and Spacing Tab
  • In the Spacing section, adjust your spacing accordingly

3. Page Formatting

The layout of the page when it is printed refers to the page formatting. It consists of page margins,

page size, page orientation, inserting page breaks,

page numbers, headers and footers, etc.

a. To change the Orientation, Size of the Page, or Columns:

  • Click the Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon
  • On the Page Setup Group, Click the Orientation, Size, or Columns drop down menus, as shown in Fig 3.25
  • Click the appropriate choice

b. Apply a Page Border and Color

  • Click the Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon On the Page Background Group, click the Page Colors or Page Borders drop down menus.

c. Insert a Cover Page

  • Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon.
  • Click the Cover Page Button on the Pages Group
  • Choose a style for the cover page

d. Insert a Blank Page

  • Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon
  • Click the Blank Page Button on the Page Group

Q.6 what is table? How a table can be inserted in a Word Document?

Ans: Table:

A table is a grid of cells arranged in rows and columns. Tables can be customized and are useful for various tasks such as presenting text information and numerical data.

Insert a Table:

  • Place the insertion point in the document
  • where user wants the table to appear.
  • Select the Insert tab.
  • Click the Table command. A dialog box appears.
  • Drag the mouse over the diagram squares to select the number of columns and rows in the table
  • Click mouse and the table appear in the document.
  • Enter text into the table.

Q.7 Write a short note on Page Margin? How Page Margins are set?

Ans: Page Margins:

Page margins are the blank space around the edges of the page. In general, users insert text and graphics in the printable area between the margins. However, they can position some items in the margins — for example, headers, footers, and page numbers.

Setting Page Margins:

  • Select the Page Layout tab.
  • Click the Margins command. A menu of options appears. Normal is selected by default.
    • Click the predefined margin size user wants.

Q.8 what do you know about naming Worksheets? Write down steps to name a worksheet.

Ans: Naming Worksheet:

There are three sheets by default and the default names on the tabs are Sheetl, Sheet2 and Sheet3. These are not very informative names. Excel 2007 allows users to define a meaningful name for each worksheet in a workbook.

Name a Worksheet:

• Right-click the sheet tab to select it.

  • Choose Rename from the menu that appears.
  • Type a new name for the worksheet.
  • Click off the tab. The worksheet now assumes the descriptive name defined.

Q.9 Write a note on Paste Special. Describe the procedure to use paste special command.

Ans: Paste Special:

Paste Special is used to copy complex items from a Microsoft Office Excel worksheet and paste them into the same worksheet or another Excel worksheet using only specific attributes of the copied data, or a mathematical operation that are to be applied to the copied data.

Using Paste special command:

  • Copy the contents of the cell to be pasted special.
  • Select the new cell where Paste special in required. Press Right-click mouse button and select Paste special command.
  • Paste special dialog box appears.
  • Specify the required paste option to do any of the following actions.

Q.10 Explain different functions in Excel.

Ans: There are many different functions in Excel. Some of the more common functions include:

Statistical Functions:

• SUM – summation adds a range of cells together.

• AVERAGE – average calculates the average of a range of cells.

• COUNT – counts the number of chosen data in a range of cells.

• MAX – identifies the largest number in a range of cells.

• MIN – identifies the smallest number in a range of cells.

Financial Functions:

• Interest Rates

• Loan Payments

• Depredation Amounts

Date and Time functions:

• DATE – Converts a serial number to a day of the month

• Day of Week

• . DAYS360 – Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year

• TIME – Returns the serial number of a particular time

• HOUR – Converts a serial number to an hour

• MINUTE – Converts a serial number to a minute

• TODAY – Returns the serial number of today’s date

• MONTH – Converts a serial number to a month

• YEAR – Converts a serial number to a year

Q.11 Explain different parts of a chart.

Ans: Charts- are a visual representation of data in a worksheet. Charts make it easy to see comparisons, patterns, and trends in the data.

Parts of Chart:

1. Source Data: The range of cells that make up a chart. The chart is updated automatically whenever the information in these cells change.

2. Title: The title of the chart

3. Legend: The chart key, which identifies each color on the chart represents.

4. Axis: The vertical and horizontal parts of a chart. The vertical axis is often referred to as the Y axis, and the horizontal axis is referred to as the X axis.

5. Data Series: The actual charted values, usually rows or columns of the source data.

6 Value Axis: The axis that represents the values or units of the source data.

7. Category Axis: The axis identifying each data series.

8. Chart Tools: Once you insert a chart, a new set of Chart Tools, arranged into 3 tabs, will appear above the Ribbon.

Q.12 Write note on filtering cells. Write down steps to perform the following: Filter Data, Clear Filter and Remove Filer.

Ans: Filtering Cells:

Filtering, or temporarily hiding, data in a spreadsheet is very easy. This allows users to focus on specific spreadsheet entries.

1. To Filter Data:

  • Click the Filter command on the Data tab. Drop-down arrows will appear besides each column heading.
  • Click the drop-down arrow next to the heading to be filter.
  • Uncheck Select All.
  • Choose Flavor.
  • Click OK. All other data will be filtered, or hidden, and only the Flavor data is visible.

2. to Clear One Filter:

  • Select one of the drop-down arrows next to a filtered column.
  • Choose Clear Filter From….

3. To Remove All Filters

  • Click the Filter command.

Q.13 what is conditional Formatting?

Ans: Conditional Formatting:

Users have spreadsheet with thousands of rows of data. It would be extremely difficult to see patterns and trends just from examining the raw data. Excel gives us several tools that will make this task easier. One of these tools is called conditional formatting. Conditional formatting helps to highlight interesting cells or ranges of cells, emphasize unusual values, and visualize data by using data bars, color scales, and icon sets. A conditional format changes the appearance of a cell range based on a condition (or criteria). If the condition is true, the cell rang is formatted based on that condition; if the conditional is false, the cell range is not formatted based on that condition.

Q.14 Write a note on Workbook Protection. Write down steps to protect a workbook.

Ans: Workbook Protection:

Excel includes a Protect Workbook and Protect Sheet commands that prevents others from creating new sheets or making changes to the layout of the worksheets in a workbook. User can assign a password to protect a workbook or So that only those who know the password can unprotect the workbook or worksheet and make changes. Protecting a workbook does not prevent others from making changes to the contents of cells. To protect cell

Click Continue.

Step: Check the box “i accept the terms of this agreement” and dick the Continue button.

Step 4: Choose an installation option, Upgrade or Customize. If you click Upgrade, go on to Step 5. If you click Customize, go on to Step 4a.

Step 4a: Click the radio button for “Keep all previous versions”.

Click the Installation Options tab, left-click the first drop down box and click Run all from My Computer.

Click Install Now.

Step 5: Installation will begin. It may take 15-30 minutes to finish.

Step 6: Click Close to complete the installation.

Step 7: The first time you launch any Office program, you will be prompted to activate the software. As long as you have an active Internet connection, choose the default option and click next.

Step 8: When the activation finishes, click Close.

Step 9: Click OK to finish.

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