Computer Notes For BS Computer Peripherals

Computer Notes For BS Computer Peripherals

Computer Notes For BS Computer Peripherals.

CHAPTER # 2

COMPUTER PERIPHERALS (COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER)

word image 78 Components of a Computer

A Computer system consists of both hardware and information stored on hardware. Information stored on computer hardware is often called software. The hardware components of a computer system are the electronic and mechanical parts. The software components of a computer system are the data and the computer programs.

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word image 79 Hardware

Hardware, in the computer world, refers to the Physical components of the computer that make up a computer system is called computer hardware.

In other words, we can say that the electrical, electronically or mechanical components of a computer system is called computer’s Hardware.

For example: Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Printer, Plotter USB, CD etc. etc.

word image 80 Input Devices

A device through which we enter data into a computer system is known as input device.

In other words” input devices are the external hardware components that are used to enter are accept data and instructions into computer memory for processing”.

These are the devices through which we feed data into a computer system. Variety of input devices are available these includes keyboard, mouse, joy stick, light pen, Touch Screen, Barcode Reader, Scanner, Track Ball Etc.

word image 81 Keyboard

The keyboard is the primary input device for entering text and numbers. It is a relatively simple device, consisting of about 100 keys or above. It is the fastest way to enter text and other data into computer. The keys on the keyboard are arranged in four groups, given below.

  • Alphanumeric keypad:
  • Numeric keys:
  • Numeric keypad:
  • Curser moment keys/arrow keypad:

word image 82 The Mouse

A mouse is an input device that controls the pointer on the screen. A mouse lets you position the cursor anywhere on the screen quickly and easily. A mouse also allows you to create graphics position elements on the screen, such as line, curves and freehand shapes etc.

word image 83 The Trackball

Like a mouse, a trackball is also a pointing device. They are usually used with laptop computers. A trackball requires less space than a mouse, so when space is limited, a trackball can be a best choice.

Smart Computer Notes For BS Computer Peripherals

word image 84 The Track pointer

Several companies now offer another pointing device, consisting of a small joystick, positioned near the middle of the keyboard, typically between the G and H keys. Because it occupies so little space, the device is built into several laptop models.

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word image 86 Light Pens

An input device that utilizes a light-sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen. A light pen is similar to a mouse, except that with a light pen you can move the pointer and select objects on the display screen by directly pointing to the objects with the pen.it is important to note that the screen is the input device, in this case.

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word image 88 Touch-Screens

A touchscreen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. Touch-screens are well suited for simple applications such as Automated Teller Machine (ATM) or public information kiosks, departmental stores, drugstores and supermarket etc.

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word image 89 Bar Codes Readers

A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed barcodes. It is commonly found in the supermarkets, and departmental stores. These devices convert the bar code, which is a pattern of printed bar on products, into the numeric digits.

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word image 90 Scanner

Scanner or an image scanner is an input device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to an electronic format that can be stored in a computer’s memory.

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word image 92 Microphones

A microphone (also called a mic or mike) is an input device that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, and in computers for recording voice, voice chatting etc.

word image 93 Output Devices

Although there are many kinds of input devices, there are currently just four common types of output devices: Monitors, Printers, Plotters, and Sound systems.

word image 94 Monitors

Monitors are the most common type of output device with which user interact most often. Two basic types of monitor are the used with PC’s. The first is the typical monitor that you see on a desktop computer – it looks a lot like a television screen and works the same way. This type uses a large vacuum tub, called a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT).

The second type, known as a Flat-Panel display. There are several types of flat-panel monitors, but the most common is the liquid crystal Display (LCD). Calculators also use liquid crystal.

Smart Computer Notes For BS Computer Peripherals

Printer

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A printer is a device that converts data (stored in the computer) into human understandable data, placed on paper (Hard Copy).

Printer that prints a character at a time called as serial printer, a line at a time called as line printer, and a page at a time, called as page printer. Usually printer speed measured in lines minutes (1pm) or page per minute (ppm).

Printer can vary in the type of printing mechanism used. An impact printer strikes the paper. A nonimpact printer does not use a striker, hammer or other impact mechanism. The advantages of impact printer are that they are inexpensive; they print graphics as well as text. The disadvantages are that they are noisy and graphics quality is poor. Examples of impact printers are Dot-matrix, Daisy-wheel and Drum printer.

word image 96 Types of printers

There are two types of printers.

  1. Impact printers
  2. Non-impact printers

Comparison between impact and non-impact printers

Impact printers

Non-impact printers

Use striking mechanism for printing

Use toner or ink for printing

Make noise during printing

Silent printers

These are slow printers

These are fast printers

These are low quality printers

These are high quality printers

These are cheap or inexpensive printers

These are expensive printers

Examples: Dot matrix, Daisy wheel and line

Examples: Laser jet, Ink jet and thermal

printers

printers

word image 97 Impact Printers

Impact printers were those printers that produce noise during printing. These are hardly seeing in the markets today as they are replaced by non-impact printers. Some types of impact printers are

Daisy Wheel Printer

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Daisy Wheel printers are impact printers. Their output resembles a typed output. In daisy wheel printer, each petal of the daisy wheel has a character embossed on it. A motor spins the wheel at a fast rate. When the desired character rotation to the correct position, a print hammer strikes it to produce the output.

Smart Computer Notes For BS Computer Peripherals

Dot Matrix Printers

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These printers print each character as a pattern of dots. The printer head hammers out characters in the form of patterns of tiny dots. The print quality of a dot matrix printer is inferior (poor) to that of a daisy wheel printer. They are also less expensive than a daisy wheel printer. They can print any shape or character that a programmer can describe. This allows to print graphics such as charts and graphics.

Drum printers

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A Drum printer consists of a solid, cylindrical drum that has raised characters in bands on its surface. Each band contains all the possible characters. The drum rotates at a fast speed. These hammers strike the paper, along with the inked ribbon. Typically speeds of drum printers are in the range of 1000 to 2000 lines per minute.

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word image 102 Non-Impact Printer

Non-impact printers are faster and quieter then impact printers because they have fewer moving parts. Two types of non-impact printers

Often used with microcomputers are laser printers and ink-jet printers. A third kind, the thermal printer, is seen less frequently.

Ink-Jet printer

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Ink-Jet printers create an image directly on paper by spraying ink through tiny nozzles. Ink-jet printer offer the most cost-effective way to print in color. Color Ink-jet printers have four nozzles: Blue, red, yellow and Black. These four colors are used in almost all color printing, because it is possible to combine gum to create any color. For this reason, color printing is sometimes four color printing.

Bubble-Jet Printer

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A variation on Ink-Jet technology is the Bubble-Jet Printer, which uses miniature (small) heating elements to force specially formulated inks through print heads with 128 tiny nozzles. The multiple nozzles print fine image at high speed.

Laser Printer

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Laser Printers are the most common type of non-impact Printer. They are more expensive then Inkjet printers, their print quality is higher and most are faster. They produce sharp, crisp (fresh) images of both text and graphics, providing resolutions from 300 dpi (dot per inches) to 1200 dpi. They are quiet and fast, able to print 4-32 pages per minute. They can print in different fonts. The more expensive models can print in different colors.

Thermal Printer

word image 108

For highest quality color printing available with a desktop printer is the Thermal Printer. Thermal Printers use colored waxes (increase) and heat to produce images by burning dots onto special paper. The colored wax sheet are not required for black and white output. Thermal Printers are expensive and they require expensive paper. Thus they are not generally used for jobs requiring a high volume of output.

word image 109 Plotters

A plotter is a special kind of output device. It is like a printer in that it produces images on paper, but it does so in a different way. Plotters are designed to produce large drawings or images, such as construction plans for buildings or blueprints for mechanical objects.

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There are two types of plotters that were most commonly used

Drum plotter

Flatbed plotter

Drum Plotter

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A drum plotter is also known as Roller Plotter. It consists of a drum or roller on which a paper is placed and the drum rotates back and forth to produce the graph on the paper. It also consists of mechanical device known as Robotic Drawing Arm that holds a set of colored ink pens or pencils. The Robotic drawing Arm moves side to side as the paper are rolled back and forth through the roller. In this way, a perfect graph or map is created on the paper. This work is done under the control of computer.

Drum Plotters are used to produce continuous output, such as plotting earthquake activity.

Flatbed Plotter

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A flatbed plotter is also known as Table Plotter. It plots on paper that is spread and fixed over a rectangular flatbed table. The flatbed plotter uses two robotic drawing arms, each of which holds a set of colored ink pens or pencils. The drawing arms move over the stationary paper and draw the graph on the paper. Typically, the plot size is equal to the area of a bed. The plot size may be 20-by-50 feet. It is used in the design of cars, ships, aircrafts, buildings, highways etc. Flatbed plotter is very slow in drawing or printing graphs. The large and complicated drawing can take several hours to print. The main reason of the slow printing is due to the movement mechanical devices.

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Drum plotter Flatbed Plotter

word image 119 Sound Systems/ speaker

Just as microphones are now important input devices, speakers and their associated technology are key-output system. Today, when you buy a multimedia PC, you are getting a machine that includes a CD-ROM drive, speakers and a sound card.

The speakers attached to these systems are similar to ones you connect to a stereo. The only difference is that they are usually smaller and they contain their own small amplifiers.

word image 99

Chapter # 3

A Computer system consists of both hardware and information stored on hardware. Information stored on computer hardware is often called software. The hardware components of a computer system are the electronic and mechanical parts. The software components of a computer system are the data and the computer programs.

word image 120 Computer Hardware

Hardware are the physical components that make up a computer system. They include electrical and mechanical devices attached to the computer for the purpose of input, process, storage and output operations.

In other words “Hardware, in the computer world, refers to the Physical components of the computer that make up a computer system is called computer hardware”.

This refers to any part that is tangible (Touchable, Physical). The major hardware components of a computer system are: For example: Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Printer, Plotter USB, CD etc. These parts are typically accommodated within the laptop or desktop unit itself, except for the desktop keyboard and mouse.

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Figure 3: A typical installation of computer hardware

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Figure 4: A Diagrammatic Representation of Mother Slot where CPU is fixed

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