Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft

Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft

Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft. Art and Craft are essential to our existence, and are the oldest inheritance we got as human beings. They play a vital role in human evolution, growth and development. They are used for fashion as well as for functional purposes all over the globe.

Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft
Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft

Unit 5

Modes in Art and Craft





“Art washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life.” Pablo Picasso


Art and Craft are essential to our existence, and are the oldest inheritance we got as human beings. They play a vital role in human evolution, growth and development. They are used for fashion as well as for functional purposes all over the globe. Art expresses ideas, feelings, and visual qualities. Craft deals with the right use of tools and materials. Collectively they create a sequential world of colors, harmony, creativity and fineness.

Modes of art and craft are ways or methods to express and communicate ideas, feelings and skills. Their practice helps individuals reshaping their capabilities and personalities enhancing the initiative, perseverance, sensibility and self-reliance.

Dictionaries tell us, mode is a way or manner in which something occurs or is expressed, or done. Mode is also an option allowing a change in the method of operation of a device, esp. camera: “a camcorder in automatic mode”.

In general speaking, modes are method, styles, approaches, ways and forms etc. They cannot be separated from innovation and creativity so

They are the modes of creativity in real sense. They could be divided in many categories and sub-categories further yet, in the following unit we will only touch: Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

i. Paper work (Paper Art);

ii. Stenciling;

iii. Calligraphy;

iv. Masks and puppets;

v. Drawing and Painting; as modes of art and craft.

For teachers it’s necessary to comprehend and get hands on application of these modes to give their students a comprehensive practical education.

The unit would only touch on the most important points. It is strongly recommended to search for more detail work in the field of your interest to get the latest information through the latest technologies.

To facilitate student teacher’s specialist skills in achievement of the maximum percentage getting the course objectives, art and craft modes and their implementation is a part of this text book. Hope the information and illustration given in the unit will be very helpful for all who seek it.

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After going through this unit the student will be able to:

1. Define the modes of Art and Craft;

2. Identify modes of Art and Craft and their differences;

3. Develop an awareness of the historical, social and economic role of art, craft;

4. Select appropriate techniques for doing their art projects and activities;

5. Use and understand the art and craft elements;

6. Use a variety of materials, media, tools and equipment to practice art and craft work ;

7. Use an appropriate working vocabulary;

8. Do project work from conception to realization;

9. Appraise and evaluate his/her own work in progress and on completion;

10. Develop his/her aesthetic sense and appreciate beauty in the environment and culture.

1. Paperwork

“The value of paper depends on whose hands hold it. To a first grader, it could mean a canvas to roll crayons on. To an office clerk, it could mean a sheet to print a report on. But to an artist, it could mean a sculpture, an entire advertisement, or even an avenue to deliver an inspiring message. Working with paper can be quite exhausting but given sufficient talent, imagination, and patience, a dedicated artist can turn one sheet into a multi-dimensional centerpiece.”

Paperwork refers to use of paper in business and offices for writing and printing. But it’s only one aspect of paperwork. Paper also can be used for drawing, painting, stenciling, making toys by folding it and for decorative purposes. People have been using papers for expressing their creativity and enhancing the beauty of their surroundings for hundreds of years. Decorative papers can be divided into several categories, including end paper, lining paper, wallpaper, wrapping paper, and paper handicrafts.

Here we concern only with paper art that involve making different objects with paper using clean hands and simple tools. Art of paper quilling, Paper Mache and paper flowers etc. are appreciated by the classes and the masses. The famous art of cuts in folded pieces of paper, developed by both the Chinese and the Japanese. The Japanese art of folding uncut sheets of paper to make objects in called origami.

1.1 Paper Art

Or Origami is the art of paper folding. The Word is Japanese, literally meaning to fold (oru) paper (kami). Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

Origami2, pronounced awr uh GAH mee, is the art of folding paper into decorative objects. The term is the Japanese word for folded paper. There are about 100 traditional origami figures, most depicting such natural forms as birds, flowers, and fish. An abstract, ceremonial form of origami, called a noshi, is a pleated paper ornament attached to gifts. Most origami is folded from an uncut square of paper. The most common sizes of square are 15 centimeters and 25 centimeters (6 and 10 inches). The preferred paper is thin Japanese paper called washi, but foil-backed wrapping paper and heavy art paper are also used.

Origami, like paper, originated in China. But the art flourished in Japan. Since the 1940’s, it has reached new levels of complexity and realism. Origami is a form of visual / sculptural representation that is defined primarily by the folding of the medium (usually paper).

    1. Origami:

Brief History No one really knows when and where origami was invented3. Some origami historians argue that since the invention of paper is credited to Ts’ai Lun of China in A.D. 105, paper folding must have been invented soon after. Paper was then introduced to Japan in the late sixth century by Buddhist monks, and paper folding was brought along with it. In Japan, paper was considered an expensive commodity, and it was used in many aspects of Japanese life, most notably in architecture. Modern origami owes a great deal to the efforts of YOSHIZAWA Akira. After centuries of people folding the same traditional models, Master Yoshizawa published books with completely new models starting in the early 1950’s. He, together with American Sam Randlett, also developed the standard set of origami diagram symbols that is still used today. Exhibitions of his work, both in Japan and around the world, introduced origami to many people, leading to the formation of various origami associations including the Origami Center of America (now OrigamiUSA), and the British Origami Society. Now there are origami masters and enthusiasts in many countries, forming a widespread but close-knit community. Yoshizawa, who died in 2005 at the age of 94, is still regarded as the grandmaster of origami. Today, master paperfolders can be found in many places around the world. New and improved folding techniques have produced models that would have astounded the ancients. The artistry of paperfolding is also flourishing.

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1.1.2 Origami Paper almost any laminar (flat) material can be used for folding; the only requirement is that it should hold a crease4. Origami paper, often referred to as “kami” (Japanese for paper), is sold in prepackaged squares of various sizes ranging from 2.5 cm (1 in) to 25 cm (10 in) or more. It is commonly colored on one side and white on the other; however, dual colored and patterned versions exist and can be used effectively for color-changed models. Origami paper weighs slightly less than copy paper, making it suitable for a wider range of models. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

Foil-backed paper, as its name implies, is a sheet of thin foil glued to a sheet of thin paper. Related to this is tissue foil, which is made by gluing a thin piece of tissue paper to kitchen aluminium foil. A second piece of tissue can be glued onto the reverse side to produce a tissue/foil/tissue sandwich. Foil-backed paper is available commercially, but not tissue foil; it must be handmade. Both types of foil materials are suitable for complex models. Washi is the traditional origami paper used in Japan. Washi is generally tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, and is used in many traditional arts. Artisan papers such as unryu, lokta, hanji, gampi, kozo, saa, and abaca have long fibers and are often extremely strong. As these papers are floppy to start with, they are often back coated or resized with methylcellulose or wheat paste before folding. Also, these papers are extremely thin and compressible, allowing for thin, narrowed limbs as in the case of insect models. Paper money from various countries is also popular to create origami with; this is known variously as Dollar Origami, Orikane, and Money Origami.

1.1.3 Origami symbols

Origami when learned with the help of written instructions and pictorial aids, demands an understanding of its basic symbols, folds and instructions. Without knowing them one can’t practice origami and without practice it’s not doable. For instance, see the following tables.

1.1.4 Origami Instructions

It is strongly recommended to search for good books and try paper art. Instructions are available on net and videos could be watched to learn and practice origami online. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

1.1.5 Origami Fold

Origami is the art of folding paper into a shape representing an object. There are many folding techniques that you need to learn to form a shape out of a piece of paper. Two most important techniques are valley-fold and mountain-fold. At least, you must know what they are and you will have no problem of folding a simple origami model by using only these two folding techniques.

1.1.5 Origami Base

When you are making some origami model, you will be doing the same set of folds in the beginning stage even though the final outcome is different. These set of folding in the beginning stages is called origami base and you need to know a few bases since they are coming over and over depending upon models of origami you are working on. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

1.1.6 Types of Origami

Origami has expanded and evolved beyond birds and boats5. There are now many types of origami. In a recent, informal survey, origami enthusiasts have come up with over “80” different types of origami. There are different ways to categorize paper folding. John Smith’s Evolution of Origami6 sorts origami chronologically: Classical, Neo Classical, Modern, and Hyper-Modern. David Mitchell shows a family tree7 of origami design styles.

i. Action Origami

5 (Types of Origami, 2013)

6 (Smith, 2005)

7 (Mitchell, 2008)

Action origami models are unique in that they move. The most obvious action models are the paper airplanes. But the oldest action models have been with us for over 400 years. The cootie catcher may have been invented in the early 1600’s. This device has had many names: “salt cellar”, “fortune teller”, “flipper”, and “scrunches”. A cootie catcher is decorated with dots whereas the fortune teller is labeled with numbers or colors and messages. Water bomb, Flapping bird, jumping frog are examples of action origami.

ii. Modular Origami Modular origami, also called unit origami, requires two or more pieces of paper. The paper is folded into a shape called a “unit” or a “module”. Many units are assembled together to form the final origami model. Often, the final model looks remarkably different compared to the appearance of the units themselves. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

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iii. Wet-folding Wet folding origami is a relatively new way of folding paper. It was developed by origami master Akira Yoshizawa and it involves moistening the paper before you fold it. The resulting model has a softer, textured look with gentle curving lines. Gilda’s web site shows the difference between a regular origami dog and a wet fold origami dog.

iv. Pure & pure land Origami Most people know origami as the Japanese art of paper folding where a single sheet of paper is folded into a model without the use of tape, glue, scissors, or other tools. Not exactly true… rule of no cutting, glue, tape & tools is only true for Pure origami. The rules of pure origami are as follows:

  • start with a square piece of paper,
  • does not use glue, tape, or scissors, and
  • do not decorate the model after it is complete. Pure Origami is a relatively new invention. Making paper creations with folding and cutting was common in the past. The 200 year old book Senbazuru or kata shows models where cuts have been made. It was okay to have cuts. Even today, some Japanese origami books will have models that have cuts.

v. Origami tessellations A tessellation (also called tiling) is when shapes are arranged side by side to produce a pattern with no gaps in between. Tessellations have existed since ancient Egyptian times and are still common today in floor and wall tiling.

Origami tessellations have visual similarities to the tessellations mentioned above; but they are physically quite different. Origami tessellations are not made of separate pieces of paper placed side by side: instead, they are made with one sheet of paper. This one sheet of paper is folded such that it has a tessellated pattern.

vi. Kirigami Kirigami is similar to origami in that it is a form of paper art. The major difference is that in origami, you fold paper whereas in kirigami, you fold and cut paper. The term “kirigami” was coined by Florence Temko in the United States. She used the word kirigami in the title of her book, Kirigami, the Creative Art of Papercutting, 1962. The book was so successful that the word kirigami was accepted as the name for the art of paper cutting. In Japan, the word kirigami had been in use for a long time because “kiru” means to cut, and “gami” means paper. So, kirigami meant to cut paper. Most people will remember kirigami as a way to make paper snowflakes. Unfolding the paper snowflake is a delightful surprise because it’s almost impossible to make the exact pattern twice. Paper snowflakes have six sections because the paper is folded in half and then thirds. 1.1.7 Activities: Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

a. Try this pop up rainbow greeting card.

b. Make any toy or thing of your own choice by folding a piece of paper then write the instructions for making it along with pictures and symbols.

2. Stenciling

Stenciling is another amazing technique of art and craft. Like paper cutting and folding we can see almost everyone tries stenciling once in his/her life even without knowing its real name. We already got an idea of stenciling in paper art in types of origami – Kirigami is an example of paper stenciling. For getting a clearer idea we should understand what a stencil is! A stencil8 is a thin sheet of material, such as paper, plastic, or metal, with letters or a design cut from it, used to produce the letters or design on an underlying surface by applying pigment through the cut-out holes in the material. The key advantage of a stencil is that it can be reused to repeatedly and rapidly produce the same letters or design.

The design produced with a stencil is also called a stencil. The context in which stencil is used makes clear which meaning is intended. To stencil is also referred to decorate something or some place by using stenciling technique on it. It’s been used for screen printing from hundreds of years. Screen printing9 requires a stencil and a fine cloth or screen. The stencil carries the design to be printed. Ink is squeezed onto the printing surface through the areas of the screen not covered by the stencil. The stencil can be cut out of paper. Or it can be made by tracing a design directly on the screen and blocking out the nonprinting areas with glue or lacquer. A stencil can also be made by giving the screen a light-sensitive coating and putting the design on it photographically or by laser. The screen printing process can be used to print on paper, glass, cloth, wood, or almost any other material. It can print on objects of various sizes and shapes, including draperies, bottles, toys, and furniture. Screen printing can be done using automatic or hand-operated presses. Screen printing is also called silk-screen printing or serigraphy.

2.1 Stenciling: History

The use of stencils goes back thousands of years, for both practical reasons10—before rubber stamps or printing presses or photocopiers were invented, stencils were used to teach children their ABCs; politicians used stencils of their signatures to get through their piles of official correspondence and to make surfaces look more beautiful and more expensive. The Europeans who colonized America were familiar with stencil designs in the houses, churches and public building of their homelands and brought these traditions to the New World with them.

In early America, as soon as people began to have the time and money to beautify their surroundings they started to apply stencil decorations on their walls and even on their floors. In the later 18th and 19th centuries, stencils were also often used on other surfaces as well. These included textiles, especially bed and table coverings; furniture; and household articles such as tin and wooden trays, boxes and trunks. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

Early stencils were usually made of oiled heavy paper or, less commonly, leather. Later, stencils were made of tin and specially treated linen. All of these materials are still used today, although the most common modern stencil material is flexible strong plastic. Usually, a multi-color pattern required a separate stencil for each color (three colors, three stencils).

Stencilers have always preferred to work with fast-drying paints to reduce smudging and speed up the work. The usual paint for stencil work today is acrylic. Examples of original stenciled work in New England can still be found in the country villages and prosperous farmhouses where owners wanted stylish surroundings, but could not easily obtain or afford the costlier wallpapers, printed or embroidered textiles and woven rugs which the stencil patterns imitated. This stenciling was usually the work of professionals. These were traveling artisans who rode from one job to the next with their collection of stencil patterns, dry pigments and stubby brushes.

Later in the 19th century, as materials became more readily available and mass production of all sorts of household items increased, two important trends developed. One was that amateurs, including many housewives, began to beautify their surroundings with stencils. The other change was that numbers of women became professional stencilers for the first time. They didn’t work on walls and floors, but rather were employed to apply decoration to furniture in factories like the Hitchcock chair factory in Connecticut, or did piecework at home, stenciling on tin and smaller wooden articles.

But in spite of a few bursts of renewed interest, most notably in the late 19th century work of Louis Tiffany and the arts-and-crafts movement, during the last 150 years other technologies have steadily replaced stenciling as a means of quick, economical decoration. Printed wall coverings, printed and woven textiles, photography and computer images are a few of the many means available today for bringing pattern and color into our surroundings. Still, stenciling is an important part of America’s colorful past. And its modest revival today is a renewed expression of the universal human impulse to “make things look pretty.

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2.2 How stencils work!

So, what exactly are stencils11? Think of a stencil as a series of holes cut into a sheet of resilient, waterproof material (like paper or plastic). When paint is applied through the cut out areas to the surface beneath, an image is formed. A stencil can be used to draw or paint identical shapes, letters, patterns or symbols. Open sections of the stencil are called islands. These are the areas that allow color to be applied on the surface under the stencil. Bridges are the stencil material that separates the islands and keeps the shape of a stencil. These areas block color or paint from reaching the surface.

So, now you know about stencils. But, what is stenciling? Stenciling is the creation of an image through the application of color on a stencil and through the removed sections (islands), leaving a reproduction of the image on the underlying surface. This can also be referred to as stencil painting. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

2.3 Types of stencils

You should know that there are different types of stencils available in market. I listed the most common here for you to become familiar with. i. Pre-Cut Stencils With pre-cut plastic stencils, once you have it, you’re ready to apply paint. We refer to them as plastic, but stencils can be made of a large variety of materials (cardboard, mylar, polyethylene). However, since they are most commonly made of plastic, I’ll refer to them that way. It helps to keep things simple. There is an endless selection of pre-cut plastic stencils available.

I can’t say enough about the talented stencil artisans and designers that are out there creating craft patterns and projects that allow all of us to become artists! The drawback of a pre-cut plastic stencil is that the size of the image is not negotiable. The size of the stenciling pattern will be the size of your painted image. You can’t change that. Luckily some designers offer a couple of different sizes on their designs. The key to remember is to find the right design and make sure the size fits your project area.

ii. Pre-cut Printable Stencils They provide many benefits like they can be adjusted in size on a copy machine or with your printer options, since they can be printed, you can have your stencil now and the price difference between pre-cut stencils and free printable stencils is significant! Don’t think that a printed paper stencil can’t be used again and again like a pre-cut plastic stencil. Just cover the top of the paper with a clear protective coating like clear shelf liner before you cut it out and it will last. Just wipe it off with a damp cloth after each use.

iii. Cut and Paint Stencils Cutting out stencils is the extra step of a cut-and-paint stencil design. Cut-and-paint stencils require you to actually cut out the openings (islands) where paint is applied. However, for the extra work, they provide some great advantages. A cut-and-paint stencil design is usually printed on paper and so it can be reduced or enlarged to fit almost any project size. This is a big deal. If you like a Plastic Pre-Cut Stencil and it comes in two sizes -small at 2’ and large at 4’- and the area you have for an image is 1’ then the plastic stencil will not work for you. Take a cut-and-paint design to a copy machine and re-size it to whatever your project area requires.

Flexibility is great! Using a craft-knife cut out the objects on the stencil. Make sure your blade is sharp at all times. Dull blades may cause the paper stencil to tear. The goal is to cut along each line only once with a firm, smooth motion. With your free hand, hold the stencil firmly and rotate the stencil so that you are always cutting at a comfortable angle. When cutting past a thin bridge area carefully use a firm finger to hold down the paper. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

Always keep your fingers well away from where you are cutting. If you are working with a multi-layer stencil don’t forget to cut out the registration holes in each of the four corners, which will be used for the alignment of the stencil overlays. iv. Stencil Patterns – Single and Multiple Layer Stencils When discussing stencil patterns, you need to be familiar with the differences between a single and a multiple layer stencil. Single Layer (Silhouette) Stencils are complete with only one stencil.

I call these Silhouette Stencils because they create an image that appears to be a shadow or silhouette of an object. They do not offer much opportunity to use more than one color. Multiple Layer (Overlay) Stencils consist of more than one stencil (called overlays) and they leave you with a more complete image than a Single Layer Stencil. If you are really trying to get that hand painted look, a Multi-Layer Stencil is a must. They are more work of course but the results are well worth it.

v. Printable Stencils What’s the big advantage of printable stencils? Well, just think. You had an idea for a new project. Maybe an old piece of furniture caught your eye. You knew you could breathe new life into it and make it a one of a kind work of art. All you needed was the right stencil design. If you are anything like me, you want to get started now. What better way to do that than with a stencil you can print. You go to your computer. Find the right design. Print it and away you go! Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

Another large advantage of downloadable or printable stencils is that you can adjust them to fit your project size. Just enlarge or reduce on a copy machine until you get a good fit. Then you can copy onto stencil film, cut and you have a permanent stencil. Sure it’s a little more work but you have more control in designing your project. You’re not restricted to using only what’s available.

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2.4 Tools of Stenciling12

The Tools used in stenciling and stencil cutting are few and simple.

Stencil Sheet and cutter

To take the cutting equipment first, one requires a good sheet of plate glass about two feet square, or larger, a stencil knife, and an oil-stone. I prefer a small piece of carborundum (any of various abrasive materials, esp. one consisting of silicon carbide) to the ordinary oilstone, though it tends to wear away the knife blade rather quickly. It can be used with either oil or water as a lubricant. It is absolutely impossible to cut stencils well without a really sharp knife. As to the knife itself, there are many varieties on the market, and almost any of them, if kept well sharpened, are capable of good service. Almost any good blade of a shape readily capable of being sharpened to a point, will serve as a stencil knife.

ii. Stenciled Paper

Many crafts men cut their stencil plates from Willesden paper, which is tough and waterproof, and cuts quite well. Stout cartridge paper, coated on either side with boiled oil, and hung up to dry for a few hours, also cuts beautifully, the knife sliding through as if it were thin cheese. I have known men who preferred copal varnish to boiled oil, but the latter is my preference. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

iii. Brushes and Sundries

The tools needed in applying stencils are also few and simple. Stencil brushes or tools are familiar in appearance as not to require description at any length. They are around, set generally in mental, and those generally used by decorators are made of hog hair. The hairs are of even length, so as to present a felt surface of bristle ends.

Stencil brushes should be well cared for. When new, they should be soaked in water before use, the water being shaken out before operations commence. When used in oil or tarp’s color, they should be well knocked out in turns or white spirit after use, string tied round the bristles to prevent their spreading fanwise, and kept in water until required.

iv. Pins

Stencil pins will also be required. These are small but strong pins set in wooden heads big enough to grasp in finger and thumb, and their use is to pin the plate in position, and, incidentally, to hang it up when not use. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

v. Etceteras

A chalk line and plumb line should always be kept handy for setting out, and I like to have a supply of French chalk available, to dust ovr my hands or the plate if there is any suspension of greasiness. Delicate work, particularly on fabrics, is safeguarded from mishaps by such apparently trifling details as these.

vi. Stencil Rollers

Stencil rollers13 look and work like smaller versions of regular paint rollers. They offer quick coverage of large areas, yet produce delicate, even shading. The larger amount of paint a stencil roller holds and applies increases the risk that some will sleep under your stencil: prevent this from happening by using spray stencil adhesive to firmly affix your stencils in place. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

vii. Sponges

Sponges offer interesting, variegated applications of paint. The resulting textures are particularly effective when used to paint stencils that depict objects that might naturally have grains similar to those which can be achieved with sponges, modify of fluffy clouds, for instance, or rough river rock. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

2.5 Methods of stenciling 14

I will discuss two basic methods of stenciling. Both are very simple. The first method is called stippling, which is simply tapping or dabbing the loaded brush against the stencil openings. This method tends to produce more even tones and less depth. The second method, swirling, consists of simple circular, swirling brush motions against the stencil openings. Varying the amount of pressure or paint you apply with your brush, affects the final look of your design.

Shading can add depth and interest to your stenciled designs. I recommend practicing on paper before you begin on your wall. A tiny bit of experience, even if it is on paper, can do wonders for your confidence. You can use just about anything to apply paint. I have used cotton balls, sponge and foam rubber. Experiment! You will be amazed at the variety of effects that can be achieved by altering your paint applicators or even the paint itself. The Picket Fence stencil to the right is an example I stenciled using five different techniques.

Adding water or a glaze to your paint can also produce dazzling translucent effects that are simply breathtaking. The possibilities are limited only by you! Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

2.6 Stenciling Fabric

First, if your fabric is wrinkled, make sure to iron it first15. Tape your fabric to a flat surface (table or floor) so it doesn’t have any wrinkles or moves around while you stencil. When stenciling on fabric, spray adhesive is very helpful. Lightly mist your stencil with a spray adhesive, let it dry for a few seconds and place your stencil on your fabric surface, pressing it to achieve a tighter seal. Use stencil brushes (if it is a smaller project) or a dense foam roller for a larger one. Add some textile medium (sold in craft stores) to your stencil acrylics and stir it in well. You can also get special fabric paint but frankly, good craft acrylics with a dollop of textile medium work just as well and cost less! Use very little paint on your brush and always off load any extra paint onto a folded paper towel.

When using a stencil brush, apply the paint with dabbing/swirling motion. After all of your stenciling is complete, let the stenciled fabric dry completely (at least 24 hours). Now it’s time to heat set the stenciling. Slowly iron the stenciled fabric by pressing the iron for about 20 seconds on a low setting through the piece of soft thin cotton cloth. Heat setting will cure the paint and will help to prevent it from being washed off in the laundry. It’s always a good idea to first do a test with a sample of your fabric to ensure good results. Do your stenciling, heat set it and wash the swatch to make sure the whole technique works on your fabric. If the paint washes away you may need more heat-setting time, but it usually holds up just fine. Some fine fabrics will not tolerate heat setting and it’s always more difficult to stencil on sheer fabrics. If too much paint is used during stenciling, it may leak through on the other side of the fabric, which may add stiffness to the fabric. If your fabric is thin, place some paper (or newspapers) under it to protect your working surface (table or floor) from possible paint seepage. We’ve stenciled on silk, cotton, linen and even sheer fabrics with great results but’s always better if your fabric doesn’t have too much texture.

2.7 Stenciling Furniture

When stenciling on furniture16, you want to insure good adhesion. If the piece has a varnish or a glossy finish you’ll need to break the sheen. You can do this with a scotch brite pad, steel wool or fine grit sandpaper. Lightly sand the surface and then wipe down the piece with a little denatured alcohol on a rag to remove any grease, wax or furniture polish. When finished, soak any alcohol rags in water, place them outside and dispose of them on trash day. Alcohol rags can spontaneously combust so don’t forget to soak them in water! Next, basecoat the piece if you want to change the overall color. Most acrylic paints work well, but to insure good adhesion you may want to use an adhesive primer such as Stix or Zinnser 1*2*3. These primers can even be tinted to the color you want. After your primer/basecoat is dry you can stencil with whatever paint you like. FolkArt acrylics work great. If you want to protect your artwork, you could then topcoat the table with a clear topcoat in your desired sheen. You can also use metallic paints, glazes, varnish, and textured paints and plaster for your stencil projects. We do not recommend using spray paint because it’s hard to control and get a good results, but some people use it with great success. Oil paint is not suitable for stenciling due to very slow drying time.

2.8 Activities:

a. Try these simple stencils using primary and secondary colors to decorate your scrapbook.

b. Make your own stencil after drawing and cutting any material suitable for stenciling a cup of coffee or cake. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

3. Calligraphy:

A Historical Perspective Calligraphy17, pronounced kuh LIHG ruh fee, is the art of beautiful writing. In every literate culture, handwriting has been used to preserve sacred texts for future generations. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

Distinctive variations of calligraphy were developed in different regions and periods of time. The shapes of the letters depended on the tools that were used to make them. In Europe and the Near East, scribes wrote with quills and reeds cut to a chisel like shape. Writing was done on prepared animal skins until paper was introduced from Asia. In later periods, manuscripts were adorned with decorated initials in gold and luminous (glowing) colors, leading to the term illuminated manuscript.

In Asia, calligraphers wrote with a brush on paper, the shapes of the forms depending on the pressure and movement of the brush. Arabic calligraphy has been influenced by Islam, which considers the copying of the holy book, the Qur’an, a sacred activity. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

In Western countries, calligraphy changed after movable type was invented in the mid-1400’s. By the 1500’s, printers had assumed many of the tasks of book production formerly done by hand. Scribes worked closely with printers to make type faces.

Modern calligraphers work at many levels. Some are professionals who create custom lettering for advertising, book jackets, magazines, greeting cards, and television. Others interpret poems or prose and create books prized by collectors. Many amateur calligraphers enjoy calligraphy as a hobby, creating mementos for family and friends. Societies for calligraphy provide workshops, plan exhibits, and present educational programs.

Calligraphy18 means “beautiful writing” and refers to many other alphabets besides the ABCs we are all familiar with. Thousands of years ago, Egyptians wrote with pictures called hieroglyphs. Chinese writing was also created from pictures that make up more than 40000 characters. Chinese writing is much older than ours and has no alphabet. Other styles of writing, such as Hebrew and Arabic, have developed through the centuries, and all have their own alphabets and their own histories.

Some alphabets are no longer used, such as Mayan and Aztec, and exist only used only in ancient manuscript that we can see in museums and art-history books. Other alphabets, like Greek, Arabic, Hebrew and Russian, are used today as much as our own. Code 6410 Notes Chapter 5 AIOU Modes in Art and Craft.

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