# CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE

## CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE

CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE. Throughout human history, people have developed many interconnected and validated ideas about the physical, biological, psychological, and social worlds. These ideas have enabled successive generations to achieve an increasingly complete and reliable understanding of the human species and its environment. CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE. The means used to develop these ideas are particular ways of observing, thinking, experimenting, and validating. These forms represent a fundamental aspect of the nature of science and reflect how science tends to differ from other forms of knowledge.CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE.

### CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE

CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE. It is the union of science, mathematics, and technology that makes up the scientific endeavor and makes it so successful. Although each of these human enterprises has its own character and history, each depends on and reinforces the others. CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE. Consequently, the first three chapters of recommendations draw portraits of science, mathematics, and technology that emphasize their roles in the scientific endeavor and reveal some of the similarities and connections between them.CLASS 9th SCIENCE NOTES CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE.

# UNIT:1

## What is science?

Ans: The word science is originated from the Latin word sciencia, which means to know. It is obtained by observation and experimentation. It is systematic, tested and brought under general principles.

## Q.2: What do you mean by scientific method in science?

Ans: It is a systematic method. It involves collecting data, developing hypothesis, testing it with experimentation and getting results. It is a practical approach to the study of science. It makes the scientific process easy and reliable.

## Q.3: Discuss the Muslim Period of science?

Ans: Muslim period of science ranges from (700-1300 AD). Muslim scientists contributed in the field of Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Mathematics and Astronomy. They studied the Greek work and added their own research. They adopted practical and experimentation approach to solve scientific problems.

## Q.4: Discuss the European period of science?

Ans: European period of science ranges from 1700-1900 AD. They studied the works of Muslim scientists and translated them in their own languages. Telescope, Microscope, Clock and barometer like instruments were used. Laws of gravity and motion were put forward. Volume, Pressure and temperature were discussed. Atomic theory of matter was developed. Theories of electricity and magnetism were put forward.

## Q.6: Describe some limitations of science?

Ans: Science has the following limitations.

Science cannot speak about morality. Science cannot trace the origin of things in the universe. Science cannot measure the beauty of things. Science is silent about faith, honesty, ego and modesty etc. Science cannot describe super nature. It has no definition for Halaal and Haraam.

Q.1: Define science. Describe how the nature of science makes it different from other modes of learning?

Ans: Definition of Science:

The word science is originated from the Latin word sciencia, which means to know. It is obtained by observation and experimentation. It is systematic, tested and brought under general principles.

Difference from other modes of knowledge:

Scientific method makes it different from other modes of knowledge. It requires observation, collecting data, developing hypothesis and experimentation. This scientific process is rare in other forms of knowledge.

Science is different from literature because personal feelings are involved in it while science is totally objective in nature.

Science is different from Islamic studies as the teachings of Islam are accepted as they are. Sayings of Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) and verses of Quran will never change. Scientific formulas can change.

Science is different from history as historical facts cannot be changed while research changes science regularly.

Science is different from social norms because social norms changes from place to place. While scientific principles are the same everywhere.

Q.3: Write some important contributions of Jabir-bin-Hayyan, Ibnul Haitham and Bu-Ali-Sina?

Ans: Jabir-bin-Hayyan:

Jabir bin Hayyan is considered the father of Chemistry. He discovered and prepared many acids. He prepared and improved many chemical processes. He discovered the nitric acid (HNO3), Hydrochloric acid (HCL) and Sulphuric acid H2SO4. He discovered a paper that couldn’t catch fire and Ink which could be seen in the dark. He wrote about 3000 books on various topics. Crystallization, Melting, Distillation, Reduction and Sublimation are his major works.

Ibnul Haitham:

Ibnul Haitham contributed in the fields of mathematics, optics and astronomy. He gave the basic principles of reflection and refraction of light. He worked on lenses and the working of eye. He explained that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and then directed to eyes. Kitab-ul-Manazir was his famous book on optics. That is why he is called the father of modern optics.

Bu-Ali –Sina:

Bu-Ali- Sina is one of the famous physician, astronomer, thinker and writer of his age. He is the father of early modern medicine, astronomy, geography, logic, physics and poetry. His famous book Al-Shifa is a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia. His famous book Al-Qanoon-fil-Tib was a text book in many medical universities.

Al-Razi was a great physian of his time. He was expert in philosophy, alchemy and medicine. His book Al-Havi was the largest medical encyclopedia at that time. In his book Kitab ul Mansuri Fil-Tibb, he has written about diseases their symptoms and treatment. He discussed the small pox and measles for the first time in detail and used opium for anesthesia. His books were translated into Latin, French and Enlish languages.

Al-Bairuni

Al-Bairuni was a great scholar of physics, mathematics, geography and astronomy. In his famous book Kitab ul Hind, he has recorded his observations and experiences about his visit through the subcontinent. He closely studied astronomy, solar and lunar motions and presented them in his famous book Qanoon al Masood Fill Hayat wan Najoom. He determined the diameter of the earth. He has written more than 150 books. They were translated into many languages of the world.

Q.4: Explain how the Holy

Quran and Islam support the acquisition of knowledge? Support your answer by quoting some verses of the Holy Quran.

Ans: Islam strongly supports the acquisition of knowledge. We find several verses in the Holy Quran which motivate the man to seek, to search, to ponder and explore the universe.

Following are a few verses from the Holy Quran that stress the acquisition of knowledge and search. They invite us to look around and study the physical world, so that they may know and appreciate the dignity of Allah.

Quran invites us to look at the creation of heavens and earth, the days and nights, the ships in the water, the rain, the animals, the winds, and in the clouds are signs for the wise people.

They ponder over the creation of earth and heavens.

And He is Allah who created every living thing from water out of them, some crawl, some are four legged and some are two legged.

So let man see from what he is created.

Do they not look at the camels, how are they created? And at the heaven (sky), how it is raised? And at the mountains, how they are rooted? And at the earth, how it is spread?

Do they not see the birds held flying in the midst of the sky?

And verily in the cattle there is a lesson for you.

Q.8: Write some of the important contribution of Greek in the field of science?

Ans: Greek contributed a lot in the field of science. Science was based on mathematics, logical thinking, technology and everyday life. They were mainly interested in the origin of living things. They proposed many theories about the form and origin of earth. They developed theories on the basis of information. They developed logical methods to examine the world. They suggested for the first time that matter was made up of atoms. They made observations on the anatomy of animals. They gathered information about plants. They classified and named them. They measure the circumference of the earth for the first time. They put forward the survival of the fittest theory.

Scroll to Top