Class 9th Notes Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Solved Exercise

Class 9th Notes Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Solved Exercise

Table of Contents

Class 9th Notes Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Solved Exercise

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  • Solved Exercises
  • Short Questions & Answers
  • Long Questions & Answers
  • Extra Questions & Answers

BY: Hamid Hussain

(BS-Comp Science)


Hamid Hussain



Fundamentals of Computer j



Fundamentals of Operating System



Office Automation



Data Communication



Computer Networks



Computer Security and Ethics





Q.1 Fill in the blanks.

i. The use of transistors marked the second generation of computers.

ii. One of the first tools used to express numbers was the “Abacus”, developed in Babylonia about 5000 years ago.

Iii. Charles Babbage is considered to be the “Father of modern digital computer”.

iv. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and were used in the second generation computers.

v. Analog computers are used to process and represent continuous data.

vi. Supercomputer is the biggest in size and the most powerful computer.

vii. PDA stands for Personal Digital Assistant.

i. Web Designers are the professionals, who design

And develop websites.

A joystick is a pointing device with a vertical lever mounted on a base.

x. Registers are high-speed temporary storage

Locations are used to hold data and instructions.

Q.2 Select the correct choice for each question.

i. Which was the first tool used to express numbers, developed in “Babylonia” about 5000 years ago?

A. Napier’s bones B.✓ Abacus

C. Slide Rule D. Pascaline

ii. Who developed Napier’s bone?

A. Pascal B. Charles

C. ✓John Napier D. Richard

iii. In which generation did computers transistors were used?

A. First B. ✓ Second

C. Third D. Fourth

iv. Which computer is a combination of digital and analogue technologies?

A. ✓Hybrid B. Super

C. Mini D. Mainframe

v. Where is Columbia Supercomputer located?

A. NASA, Russia B. NASA, China

C. ✓NASA, USA D. NASA, Italy

vi. Which are the most expensive, largest and the quickest computers after Supercomputers?

A. Micro B. Mini

C. ✓Mainframe D. Laptops

vii. Which technology is used to design and manufacture products in the manufacturing industry?



viii. Which applies +…Ne principles of software engineering to the design, development, testing, and evaluation of the software?

A. Harrirvare Engineer B. ✓Software Engineer

C. DBA D. Analyst

ix. Which of the following is an input device for voice recording and voice communication?

A. Scanner B. Keyboard

C. Speaker D. ✓Microphone


Class 9th Notes Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Solved Exercise
Class 9th Notes Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Solved Exercise

Q.3 Give short answers to the following questions.

i. What are the main characteristics of a Database Administrator?

Ans: Main Characteristics of Database Administrator

a. Excellent Attention to Detail:

A DBA is regularly expected to perform complex administrative tasks incorporating multiple steps. He or she must pay full attention to detail.

b. A Natural Problem Solver:

A DBA has a passion for problem-solving and enjoy the opportunity to take on any challenge that comes his way,

c. Assertive:

A DBA is required to be able to communicate views confidently, clearly, calmly and concisely, oftentimes under high-pressure circumstances.

d. Manage Relationships:

• A DBA must forge and manage relationships across the business.

e. A Good Decision Maker:

A DBA has to make good decisions. It’s all too easy for a data professional to become bogged down in the detail but it’s important to always consider the bigger picture of all tasks undertaken.

ii. What is a register?

Ans: Registers are high-speed temporary storage locations used to hold data and instructions.

There are a number of registers in the microprocessor and each performs a specific task. For example, PC (Program Counter) is a register that contains the address of the next instruction and the instruction being executed.

iii. What is the purpose of output devices? Name any five output devices.

Ans: Output devices:

Output devices are computer hardware that can display information to a user.

Five output devices:

1. Monitor

2_ Printer

3. Plotter

4. Speaker

5. Multimedia Project

iv. Compare impact printer with the non-impact printer. Also, give one example of each.

Ans: Impact printer:

An impact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking a mechanism against an ink ribbon that physically contacts the paper.


(i) Dot-matrix printers

(ii) Line printers

Non-impact printer:

A non-impact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking the paper.


(i) ink-jet printers

(ii) Laser printers

v. What is the purpose of the multimedia projector?

Ans: A multimedia projector takes the image from a computer and projects it onto a larger screen so that people can see the image clearly. Normally

Talent Comptitur Scienev 9″ nit 1

The system software also serves as the interface between the user, the application software and hardware.


Operating System, Device Drivers, Utility


Application Software:

Application software refers to programs that perform specific tasks for users. Most application software is available as packaged software that can be purchased in retail stores ‘or on the Web.


MS-Office, CorelDraw, Adobe Photoshop, Google Chrome.

viii. List the main functions of the operating system.

Ans: Main functions of the operating system:

The operating system (OS) performs the following main functions:

  • n Recognizing input from the keyboard
  • n Sending output to the display screen
  • n Keeping track of files and directories
  • n Controlling peripheral devices

ix. Differentiate between a compiler and an interpreter.

.Ans: Compiler:

Complier translates the entire program at once and stores it on disk. The original program is called “Source Program” while its translated program is called “Object Program”. Complier cannot the projector gets inputs for a computer, DVD player, VCR, CD player and storage device. Multimedia projectors are used often in classrooms, offices and meetings at which multimedia presentations are made.

vi. State three differences between RAM and ROM.

Ans: Differences between RAM and ROM:


Random Access Memory Read-Only Memory

1. RAM is volatile memory.

ROM is non-volatile memory.

2. It holds the data temporarily.

It holds the data permanently.

3. The contents of RAM are erased

when the computer is turned off

the contents of the ROM have remained

when the computer is turned off

vii. Differentiate between system software and application software.

Ans: System Software:

System software consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices.

Execute object program. CoMpilers are time-consuming in situations where rapid changes are required in the program.


The interpreter translates only one instruction at a time and executes it. After execution, the translation is erased from memory and next instruction is loaded for translation. Interpreters are the best with short programs or experimental stage programs.

x. What is open source software?

Ans: Open-source software is available to all users free of cost, both in executable and source code form. The user has rights to study, change, improve and distribute the software to anyone for any purpose.


1. Linux: An open-source operating system.

Firefox: An open-source web browser

3. Open Office: An open-source office suite similar to Microsoft office.

4. VLC: An open-source multimedia player.

LONG QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Class 9th Notes Chapter 1

Q4 What is a computer? Give a brief description of computer evolution.

Ans: Computer:

A computer is an electronic machine that accepts data, stores it, processes and gives out the result to the user. The computer can store and operate large quantities of data at a very high speed.

The characteristics of computers that have made them so powerful and universally useful are speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and storage capacity.

Computer Evolution:


Abacus has developed in “Babylonia” about 5000 years ago. It was the simple manual calculating device made of a wooden frame with beads of rods. The simple arithmetic operations were carried out by moving the beads. The Abacus marked the first step on the road to the computer.

Napier’s Bone:

In early 1600, John Napier, a mathematician from Scotland, invented calculating rods, caned Napier’s Bone. This device is consists of bones or rods with numbers marked on them. By placing these rods side by side, products and quotients of large numbers can be obtained very easily.


One of the first mechanical calculators was developed about 1642 by 19 years old Blaise Pascal, called “Pascaline”. This machine could add and subtract numbers and had the ability to ‘carry’ digits.

Difference and Analytical Engine:

Charles Babbage who is also known as the father of the computer developed a calculator called “Difference Engine”. It was based on some predefined formulae. This machine was used by many organizations.

In 1823, Babbage planned to complete another calculating machine “Analytical Engine”, but he failed because the technology of that time was not so high.

Generations of Computers:

Computer generations refer to the advancements of computer technology. With each new generation, the circuitry has gotten smaller and more advanced than the previous generation.

The First Generation: 1946-1958

Vacuum tubes were used in the first generation of computers. The first generation of computers was slow, expensive, and often unreliable. One of the first generation computers was the ENIAC

(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer).

The Second Generation: 1959-1964

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and were used in the second generation computers. The transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material. The transistor was faster, more reliable, smaller, and much cheaper to build than a vacuum tube.

The Third Generation: 1965-1970

The development of the integrated circuit (ICs) was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Integrated circuits placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, increased the speed and efficiency of computers. The invention of integrated circuits reduced both the size and cost of computers. Third-generation computers could carry out instructions in billionths of a second.

The Fourth Generation: 1971-Today

The Fourth Generation can be characterized by both, the integrated circuits, and the invention of the microprocessor (a single chip that could do all the processing of the full-scale computer). It led to the invention of personal computers or microcomputers.

Fifth Generation: Present and Beyond

Fifth-generation computers are based on artificial intelligence and are still in the development phase. Robots and other intelligent systems are major developments of this generation. The main objective of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural .languageinput and are capable of learning and self-organization.

Q.5 Give main features of each computer generation.

Ans: First Generation:

Vacuum tubes were the only electronic component available during those days.

. Vacuum tube technology made it possible to make electronic digital computers.

These computers could calculate data in milliseconds.

Second Generation:

Smaller in size as compared to the first generation computers The 2nd generation computers were more reliable

‘A, used less energy and were not heated.

Better speed and could calculate data in microseconds

‘A, Used faster peripherals like tape drives, magnetic disks, printer etc.

Third Generation:

Smaller in size as compared to previous generations.

  • More reliable, Better accuracy
  • Used less energy , produced less heat
  • Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds.
  • Used fan for heat discharge to prevent damage.
  • Maintenance cost was low

Totally general purpose

• Less expensive Fourth Generation:

  • More powerful and reliable than previous generations.

• Small in size

  • Fast processing power with less power consumption

50 Fan for heat discharging

;0 No a4r conditioning required.

Totally general purpose

Talent Computer Science 9th 16 Unit 1

Fifth Generation: It is based on • the technique of Artificial Intelligence Computers can understand spoken words & imitate human reasoning.Can respond to its surroundings using different types of sensors.

➢ increased the processing power

Real IQ capabilities with the help of advanced programming and technologies.

Q.6 Explain different types of digital computers. Ans: Digital Computers:

A digital computer represents physical quantities with the help of digits or numbers. Digital computers work with discrete numbers. Digital computers are general-purpose computers that can be used to solve a variety of problems. They have powerful processing capabilities, large memory and storage to process and retain data as well as information.

These can be used in almost every field of life such as science and research, education, health, engineering, business, banks, markets, space, aircraft, etc.

Types of digital computer:

According to their size, speed, memory and peripheral support they can be classified into the following four classes.

■ Super Computers:

Supercomputer is the biggest in size and the most powerful computer. It is used in large scientific and research laboratories as well as government organizations to meet their extraordinary demand for processing data which require incredible processing speed, memory and other services. These computers are very expensive and their speed is measured in TIPS (trillions of billions of instructions per second).


Cray-I and Columbia Supercomputer

■ Mainframe Computers

After Supercomputers, the most expensive, largest and the quickest or speedy computers are called mainframe computers. These computers are used in large. Companies, factories, organizations etc. This computer can control and supervise hundreds of users at a time. The mainframes are able to process billions of instructions per second (BIPS).

This computer is commonly used in big hospitals, airline companies, stock exchange companies, universities and many other large organizations.


BM zSeries, System z9 and System z10 servers

■ Minicomputers

Minicomputers are smaller than mainframes, both in size and other facilities such as speed, storage capacity and other services. Their speeds are rated between one and fifty million instructions per second (MIPS).

These are the computers, which are mostly preferred by the small type of business organizations, colleges, etc.


IBM 5360 Minicomputer, MAI Basic4 DEC PDP and VAX Series

■ Microcomputers

Microcomputers are the smallest range of computers introduced in the early 70’s… Microcomputers of today are equivalent to the mini computers of yesterday in terms of performance and processing. These computers are lesser in cost than the computers given above and small in size. Today this is thought to be the popular computer in all. Microcomputers cone( in many shapes and sizes.


PC (Personal Computer), Laptop, Notebook, Palmtop and PDA.

Q.7 Give uses of computers in the following fields.

i. Education ii. Business

iii. Defence IV. Media


I. Uses of computer in education:

It is easier to refer to the Internet than to search for information manually in reference books. The process of learning has gone beyond learning from prescribed textbooks. It is easier to store information on computers than maintaining hand-written notes.

Online education has revolutionized the education industry. Computer technology has made the dream of distance learning, a reality. Education is no more limited to classrooms. It has reached far and wide due to computer technology.

Using computer-based dictionaries and encyclopedias; a student can find meanings of difficult words and information on any topic within seconds.

ii. Business:

Computers are extremely important in today’s business. Ordering products, shipping. Information, price checks in retail stores, etc. is done using computers. Computers have become a requirement in the business industry.

Different software such as word processing, electronic spreadsheets, database management system enables the company’s owners to handle daily accounting tasks, stock management, marketing, POS (Point of Sale) and many other functions.


There are many uses of computers in Defence such as:

  • Controlling unmanned air-crafts.
  • They are also used on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) that use GPS (Global Positioning System) and Computers to help the missile get to the target.
  • Computers pre used to track incoming missiles and destroy them.
  • Computers are used in tanks, planes and shipsto target enemy forces.

iv. Media

Now day’s computers are extensively used in both print and electronic media. Media is used for the distribution of information, advertising, marketing and in general, for expressing and sharing views, opinions and ideas. Computers are extensively used in the ‘Print media’ that includes newspapers, magazines, brochures, newsletters, books and even leaflets and pamphlets. Electronic Media is using the latest computer technology. With the advent of new technologies like the Internet, we are now enjoying the benefits of high technology mass media, which is not only faster but also, has a wider range.

Q.8 Explain the scope of the following careers in IT. I. Software Engineer ii. System Analyst Iii. Hardware Engineer


I. Software Engineer:

A software engineer is an engineer who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, development, testing, and evaluation of the software. Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies and non-profit organizations. Software engineers are highly paid personnel in any organization.

System Analyst

System analysts research problems, plan solutions, recommend software and systems, and coordinate development to meet business or other requirements. Analysts are often familiar with a variety of programming languages, operating systems, and computer hardware platforms. Because they often write user requests into technical specifications, the systems analyst. act as a bridge between vendors and IT professionals. System Analysts are also highly paid employees of any organization.

iii. Hardware Engineer

Computer hardware engineers mainly focus on the physical aspects of computers. They plan, design, develop, test, and oversee the installation of computer hardware such as circuit boards, memory chips, cards and keyboards, etc. They have a sound background in engineering science and technology.

They also use their techniques for the production of technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models. It is very essential for hardware engineers to continue their education to keep up with ever-changing improvements in technology.

Q.9 Write note on any five input devices.

Ans: Input Devices:

Input is any data or instructions entered into the memory of a computer. An input device is any hardware component that allows a user to enter data and instructions into a computer.

Five input devices

i. Keyboard:

A keyboard contains keys that allow a user to enter data and instructions into the computer. All computer keyboards have a typing area that includes the letters of the alphabet, numbers, punctuation marks, and other basic keys. A standard computer keyboard is sometimes called a QWERTY keyboard because of the layout of its typing area,

ii. Mouse:

A mouse is the most widely used pointing device on personal computers. A mechanical mouse has a rubber ball on its underside to detect movement of the mouse. An optical mouse uses devices that emit and sense light to detect the mouse’s movement. A cordless mouse (either mechanical or optical) transmits data using wireless technology such as radio waves or infrared light waves.

iii. Joystick:

A joystick is a pointing device with a vertical lever mounted on a base. The lever usually includes buttons called triggers, which activate certain events when pressed. Joysticks are mainly used for computer games.

Iv. Touch Screen

A touch screen is a touch-sensitive display input device. It is used for information kiosks located in department stores, hotels, airports, and museums. Touch screens are also used for ATM machines to allow easy access to bank accounts.

V. Light Pen

A Light Pen is a pointing device shaped like a pen and is connected to a VDU (Video Display Unit). The tip of the light pen contains a light-sensitive element that, when placed against the screen, detects the light from the screen enabling the computer to identify the location of the pen on the screen. Light pens are used for ‘drawing’ directly onto the screen.

0.10 What is system unit? Explain main parts of system unit.

Ans: System Unit:

Thy system unit is the rectangular case that houses the electronic components inside the computer. The motherboard is the main circuitry in the system unit. Two main components on the motherboard are the central processing unit (CPU) and memory.

Main parts of system unit:

System unit components include

a. motherboard

b. Hard drives

c. Optical drives

d. Power supply

e. Expansion cards

f. Various port connectors

a. Motherboard

A PC motherboard is a printed circuit board used in notebook and desktop computers. It is also known as the mainboard or logic board.

b. Power Supply

The power supply supplies power to the components of your computer. It converts AC power to low voltage DC power and supplies the various voltages needed by the various components of the computer.

c. Expansion Cards

Expansion cards can be plugged into the motherboard to provide extra features that the system does not have. Most likely the common use of expansion cards is for high-end graphics. The typical graphics capability that is included on modern motherboards is quite adequate for most applications but is perhaps not good enough for three-dimensional animation used in advanced computer games.

d. Ports

In computer hardware, a port refers to an interface between the computer and other computers or peripheral devices. Common ports include:

Q.11 what is CPU? Explain the main parts of CPU.

Ans: ‘CPU (Central Processing Unit):

Central Processing Unit
Class 9th Notes Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Solved Exercise 3

The processor or the central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic device that interprets and carries out the instructions that tell the computer how to work. The CPU is usually contained on a single chip and is often called a microprocessor.

Main parts of CPU:

A microprocessor usually contains the control unit (CU), the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) and registers.

i. Control Unit (CU):

The control unit directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer. For every instruction, the control unit repeats a set of four basic operations called the machine cycle or instruction cycle.

The four basic operations are:

a. Fetch – obtain program instruction or data item from memory.

b. Decode – translate instruction into commands.

c. Execute – carry out the command.

d. Store – write the result to memory.

ii. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

The ALU performs arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations. Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Comparison operations involve comparing one data item to another.

Logical operations work with conditions and logical operators such as AND, OR, and NOT.

iii. Registers

Registers are high-speed temporary storage locations used to hold data and instructions.

A microprocessor contains many different types of registers, and each performs a specific function. Common types of registers include:

a. Program counter (PC): PC register holds the address of the next instruction.

b. Instruction register (IR): IR holds the current instruction.

c. Instruction decoder: Instruction decoder interprets, or decode the instruction.

d. Accumulator register (AC): AC holds the data item to be processed and the results of arithmetic and logical operations.

e. Status register (SR): SR holds a collection of condition flags, which describe the status of the most recent operation carried out by the ALU.

Q.12 Write short note on any three storage devices.

Ans: Storage Devices:

Storage devices refer to the media on which data, instructions, and information are stored. Storage is also known as backing storage or secondary storage.

1. Hard Disk:

A hard disk is a large backing storage device. It consists of several inflexible, circular disks, called platters, on which items are stored electronically. Hard disks are sealed tightly to keep out contaminants (e.g., dust and smoke particles), which may result in a head crashes.

2. Compact disk:

A compact disc (CD) is a flat, round, portable, storage medium that is usually 4.75 inches in diameter and less than one-twentieth of an inch thick. Compact discs store items by using a laser beam.

A compact disc is more portable than a hard disk but the average access time of a compact disc is slower than that of a hard disk.

3. USB Flash Drive:

A USB (Universal Serial Bus) flash drive is commonly known with different names such as thumb drive, pen drive, jump drive and flash drive. It consists of a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface. USB flash drives are removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than other storage mediums. USB flash drives are used for the same purposes for which other backing storage mediums are used.

Q.13 what is computer memory? Explain different types of computer memory in detail.

Ans: Memory:

Memory is a temporary area for holding data, instructions, and information. Memory is also known as main storage or primary storage. A computer usually loads the data and instructions from storage into memory and then executes them. Memory has a much faster access time than backing storage. Memory can be volatile or nonvolatile. The size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available for use.

Types of memory:

There are three types of memory.

1. RAM (Random Access Memory)

2. ROM (Read Only Memory)

3. Memory Cache

1. RAM:

RAM (Random Access Memory) is volatile memory in the system unit. It holds the data temporarily as long as the computer remains on. All the contents of the RAM are removed when we turn off the computer. All the programs are loaded into the RAM of the computer before execution. The two basic types of RAM are dynamic RAM and static RAM.

a. DRAM (Dynamic RAM): It is a type of memory that must be re-charged constantly otherwise its contents are lost.

b. SRAM (Static RAM): It is faster and more reliable than any form of DRAM, but is more expensive. SRAM does not have to be recharged as often as DRAM.

2. ROM:

ROM (Read- Only Memory) is a nonvolatile memory. It is permanent memory. All data, instructions, or information are recorded permanently by the manufacturers in ROM. ROM contains the basic input/output system (BIOS), which is a sequence of instructions the computer follows to load the operating system . and other files when the computer is turned on. Variations of ROM chips include:

a. Programmable read-only memory (PROM): It is a type of ROM chip on which programs can be placed permanently.

b. Erasable programmable read-only memory

EPROM: It is a ROM chip designed to be modified by users.

3. Cache Memory:

Most computers today use cache memory, which speeds the process of computing by storing frequently used instructions and data. There are generally two types of cache memory.

  1. Ll (Level 1) cache: It is also called the primary cache or internal cache. Ll cache is built directly into the processor chip. It usually ranges from 8 KB to 64 KB.

b. L2 (Level 2) cache: It is not part of the processor chip. L2 cache is slightly slower than Ll cache but has a larger capacity. It usually ranges from 64 KB to 2 MB.

Q.14 what are expansion slots? Name different types of slots.

Ans: Expansion slot:

An expansion slot allows the CPU to communicate with peripheral devices. An expansion slot is a socket where a circuit board, or expansion card, can be inserted into the motherboard to add new

Devices, or capabilities, to the computer.

Different types of slots:

Common types of expansion slots include:

1. ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)

2. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)

3. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

Q.15 what is expansion card? Explain the purpose of the following cards.

I. Video card ii. Sound card

iii. Modem card iv. MC

Ans: Expansion Card:

An expansion card is a circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot on the motherboard to add new devices, or capabilities, to the computer.

Video Card:

A video card is also called a graphics card or video adapter, converts the digital output from the computer into an analogue video signal that is sent through a cable to the display device.

Sound Card:

Sound Card allows sound to be input through a microphone and output through speakers.

All Modem Card:

Modem Card enables computers to communic$te via telephone lines.

Wet work Interface Card (NIC):

Network Interface Card (NIC) is an expansion card that enables a computer to connect to a network.

Q.16 Explain the four basic operations performed by a computer.

Ans: Four basic operations of computer:

The computer performs four basic operations to carry out any task. They are Input, Process, Storing and Output.

1. Input Operation:

It is the process of accepting data or information.

2. Processing Operation:

Processing is the manipulation of data into a useful form.

3. Storing Operation:

It is the process of storing or retaining the data or information or instructions so that the user can retain and retrieve it whenever required.

4. Output Operation:

It is the result, which comes from the transformation process or it is the outcome of the process.

Q.17 Explain different types of system software.

Ans: System Software:

System software consists of programs that control the operations of the computer and its devices. The system software also serves as the interface between the user, the application software and hardware.

Types of system software:

The main types of system software are:

1. Operating System

2. Device Drivers

3. Utility programs

4. Language Translators

1. Operating System

The operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks. such as:

  • Recognizing input from the
  • Sending output to the display screen:
  • Keeping track of files ana directories on the disk
  • Controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.


Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and UNIX are all examples of operating systems.

Check more Computer notes:

2. Device Drivers:

A device driver is a program that controls a particular type of device that is attached to the computer. There are device drivers for printers, monitors, CD-ROM readers, diskette drives, and so on. When we buy an operating system, many device drivers are built into the product.


Mouse driver, keyboard driver, video card driver and sound card driver are examples of device drivers.

3. Utility Program:

A program that performs a specific task related to the management of computer functions, resources, or files, like password protection, memory management, virus protection, and file compression. Utility software plays a supporting role. Utility programs help manage, maintain and control computer resources.


Virus scanning. software, Backup software, Scandisk and Disk deli-augmenter are examples of utility programs.

4. Language Translators:

Language translators are the software that are used to convert programming language source code into machine language object code that the computer understands. The three major types of language translators are:

a. Compilers

b. Assemblers

c. Interpreters

a. Compilers

A compiler is a special program that takes written source code and turns it into machine language. After a program is compiled, it is then in a form that the processor can execute.

Free Download Class 10th Computer Notes

b. Interpreters

An interpreter behaves very differently from compilers and assemblers. It converts programs into machine-executable form each time they are

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