CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

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CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. The chemical industry comprises companies that produce industrial chemicals. It is central to the modern world economy and converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products. The plastics industry has some overlap, as some chemical companies produce both plastics and chemicals.CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES.

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. Various professionals are involved in the chemical industry, including chemical engineers, chemists, and laboratory technicians. As of 2018, the chemical industry comprises approximately 15% of the US manufacturing economic sector.CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES.

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. One of the first chemicals to be produced in large quantities through industrial processes was sulfuric acid. In 1736, the pharmacist Joshua Ward developed a process for its production that consisted of heating the saltpeter, allowing the sulfur to oxidize and combine with the water. CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES.

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES. It was the first practical production of sulfuric acid on a large scale. John Roebuck and Samuel Garbett were the first to establish a large-scale factory in Preston pans, Scotland, in 1749, which used lead condensing chambers for the manufacture of sulfuric acid.CLASS 10th CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTER 16 CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES.

Chapter No.16

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Q.1. Define mineral, ore, native metal, compound metal and gangue?

Ans. Mineral:

“A naturally occurring substance present in rocks and ground that has its own chemical composition is called mineral.” e.g. diamond, quartz, garnet etc.

Ore:

“A type of mineral from which metal is obtained is called ore.”OR Impure form of metal is called ores. e.g. hematite, bauxite, chalcocite etc. Native metal:

“A metal in free state is called native metal.”

Compound metal:

“A metal in combined state is called compound metal. It is also called mineral”

Gangue:

“The unwanted impurities present in an ore are called gangue.”

2. Define metallurgy. What are its steps?

Ans. Metallurgy:

“The art and science of making metals and alloys from their ores is called metallurgy.” OR

The extraction of metals from their ore and conversion of them to alloys is called metallurgy.”

Basic metallurgical operations/steps:

During metallurgy the following general steps are carried out which are called basic metallurgical operations:

i. Mining

ii. Grinding and crushing

iii. Concentration

iv. Roasting and calcination

v. Smelting and reduction

vi. Electro-refining

.3. Describe the basic metallurgical operations in detail.

Ans. Basic metallurgical operations:

Basic metallurgical operations are the various physical and chemical processes by which metals are not only extracted from their ores but also made them suitable for use. Metals are extracted from their ores by different methods. The selection of the method depends on;

a. Type of ore i.e. oxide, carbonate etc.

b. Reactivity of metal

c. Nature of gangue present in ore.

During metallurgy the following general steps are carried out which are called basic metallurgical operations:

i. Mining

ii. Grinding and crushing

iii. Concentration

iv. Roasting and calcination

v. Smelting and reduction

vi. Electro-refining

Their detail is given below:

1. Mining:

Extracting ores from the ground by digging the earth is called mining.

2. Concentration:

The ore contain a large amount of gangue or useless rocky portion. In order to remove sufficient amount of gangue, concentration of ore is carried out. Various methods are used for concentration of ore these include grinding and crushing, gravity separator, froth floatation process etc. The detail is described below:

a. Grinding and crushing:

The ore obtained by mining consists of large pieces. In this step the ore is converted to small pieces with the help of grinders and crushers. These small pieces are then converted into fine powder with the help of ball mill or stamp mill. This process is called pulverization

b. Gravity separation (Hydraulic washing):

This method is based on the difference in densities of ore and gangue. In this method, the ore containing gangue is poured over a hydraulic classifier. The hydraulic classifier is a vibrating inclined table with grooves. Then a jet of water is allowed to flow over the ore and gangue. The ore particles are denser, they settle in grooves while the lighter gangue particles are washed away.

Froth flotation process:

It is an important method of concentration of ores. This is specially used for sulphide ores.

In this method the crushed ore is added to water containing pine oil. The mixture is agitated by passing a strong current of air. The particles of ores are wetted by pine oil and float at the top along with the froth which is removed while the particles of gangue are wetted by water and settle down. The froth is transferred to another container, washed with water and then filtered to obtain concentrated ore.

3. Extraction of metals:

When the gangue is removed from ore, then metal is extracted from it. This includes various sub-processes which are given below:

a. Conversion to oxide ore:

It is very easy to extract metals from oxide ores as compared to sulphide, carbonate or any other form. Therefore, usually the metal ore is converted to oxide ores by the following ways:

i. Roasting and calcination:

The heating of ore in the presence of air is called roasting. The temperature of this process is varied for different ores but usually it is from 500uC to 700°C

Examples:

i.2CuFeS2 + 02 Cu2S+2FeS + SO2

ii.Cu2S. Fe2S3 + 02 —1* Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2

The removal of water from hydroxide ore or removal of CO2 from carbonate ore by heating the ore in absence of air is called calcinations.

Examples:

Cu(OH)2 heat ►CUO 3H20

CuCO3 heat +CLIO + CO2

b. Smelting:

It is the process in which oxide ore in the fused form is reduced with reducing agents like coke to get the metal.

The roasted ore is mixed with coke and smelted into a blast furnace.

Example:

For example during smelting of copper sulphide ore containing iron sulphide, the iron sulphide gets oxidized to iron oxide. The iron oxide then reacts with silica (Si02) to form iron silicate (Slag).

2FeS + 302 2FeO + 2S02

Foe + Si02 FeSiO3 (Slag)

Iron silicate or slag is impurity which is lighter than molten sulphides of copper and iron. Hence, it is removed at the upper hole.

The cuprous sulphide is also oxidized in the blast furnace and form Cu20. 2Cu2S + 302 2Cu2O + 2S02

The Cu20 reacts with un-reacted FeS to form Cu2S and Foe. Cu20 + FeS –0•Cu2S + Foe

This Fe0 also reacts with Si02 in the furnace to form slag which is removed by the upper hole.

Molten cuprous sulphide (Cu2S) and iron sulphide (FeS) is called matte which is removed through the slag hole.

Bessemerization:

This process was introduced by Henry Bessmer. This process is carried out in a special egg-shaped furnace called Bessmer converter,

In this process, the molten matte is poured in Bessmer’ converter and calculated amount of sand is added to it. The iron sulphide (FeS) is oxidized to iron oxide which reacts with sand(Si02) to form slag which floats at the top from where it is removed.

2FeS + 302 —■ 2FeO + 2S02

Foe + Si02 FeSi02,(Slag)

The cuprous sulphide is converted into cuprous oxide. 2Cu2S + 302 2Cu20 + 2S02

The Cu20 reacts with Cu2S to form copper in molten form along with sulphur dioxide.

2Cu20 + Cu2S 6Cu + SO2

The Cu, in molten form obtained, is called blister copper because of it porous surface which is due to the release of sulphur dioxide gas during solidification. It is 95 to 97% pure copper containing impurities like Fe, Mn, Ag, Au etc.

Electro-refining:

In electro-refining electrolysis process is done in which the impure metal is made the anode and pure metal is made the cathode and they are dipped in a container containing• the electrolyte of the metal to be purified. Electric current is passed through the solution. As a result, the pure metal from the anode dissolves, leaving the impurities called anode mud and deposited over the cathode.

Electro-Refining of blister copper:

The blister copper obtained 95 to 97 %pure. Therefore it is made pure by the electrolysis process.

Construction of the cell:

The electrolytic cell consists of a block of anode made of blistered copper. Cathode consists of a thin sheet of copper. These two electrodes are suspended in a solution of coppe7sulpna: e and sulphuric acid.

Working:

The potential difference is 1.3voits. When electric current is passed, the impure copper from the anode dissolves to give Cu+2 ions which move towards cathode. At cathode each Cu+2 picks up two electrons and reduced to pure metallic copper. Thus pure copper is deposited over the cathode. The reactions occurring at electrodes are given below:

At anode:

Cu(s) —–i■Cu+2(aq) + 2 at cathode:

Cu+2. (aq) + 2 e- Cu(s)

The impurities like Au, Ag. And pt. present in the blister copper remains un-dissolved due their less reactivity. They settle at the bottom of the tank as anode mud where they are removed. By electrolytic refining of copper 99.99%pure copper is obtained.

.4. Describe the manufacture of sodium carbonate? OR Describe in detail the Solvay’s process.

Ans. Solvay’s process:

Sodium carbonate is commercially prepared by Solvay’s process. This process was invented by the Belgian chemical engineer, Ernest Solvay. It is explained below:

Raw materials:

The raw materials of this process are:

i. Ammonia (NH3) ii. Sodium chloride (NaCI)

Iii.Lime stone (CaCO3) IV. Water (H20)

Procedure:

This process is carried out by the following steps:

i. Saturator or ammonia absorber:

The saturated solution of sodium chloride called brine is entered to saturating tank. Here the brine solution is saturated with ammonia to form ammonia Cal brine.

ii. Lime kiln:

Lime stone is burnt in lime kiln to get carbon dioxide and calcium oxide: CaCO3 Ca0 + CO2

The CO2 is sent to carbonating tower while the CaO is slaked by adding large amount of water to it and Sent to ammonia recovery tower for the formation of ammonia from NH4CI.

iii. Carbonation tower:

The ammonia Cal brine is entered to carbonation tower or Solvay’s tower, where carbon dioxide gas from lime kiln is passed through this solution from the bottom. First ammonium bicarbonate is formed which then reacts with sodium chloride to form sodium bicarbonate which is insoluble and is precipitated. The reactions occurring in this tower are given below:

NH3 + CO2 + H2O NI-14+ +HCO3-

N11:+HCO; + Na’ + NaHCO3 + NH4CI

iv. Filtration of precipitate:

The precipitated Sodium bicarbonate is removed by filtration. It is used as baking soda.

v. Calcination:

The sodium bicarbonate is then heated in a rotatory furnace called claimer, to form sodium carbonate i.e.

2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

The carbon dioxide is recirculaiad to carbonation tower.

vi. Ammonia recovery tower:

The filtrate containing NH4CI, left by filtering sodium bicarbonate solution. Is entered to ammonia recovery tower. In this tower NH4CI is reacted with slacked lime [Ca (OH) 2] to form ammonia which is entered to the saturator. –

2NH40 + Ca (OH) 2 CaCl2 + 2H20 + 2NH3

The Solvay’s process is almost self-sufficient. The only raw materials mainly consumed are NaCI and CaCO3.

5: How is urea commercially manufactured?

Ans: Manufacture of urea:

Urea is an important nitrogenous fertilizer. Urea is also called carbamide. It is an organic compound having to NH2 groups attached to functional group C=0

H2N NH2

The composition of urea is given below:

Position of urea is given below:

S,No

Element

Percentage

Nitrogen(N)

46.67%

Oxygen(0)

26.67%

Carbon(C)

20.00%

Hydrogen(H)

6.66%

Raw materials:

The following are the Ravi material for manufacturing of urea:

1. Ammonia:

Ammonia is prepared by Haber’s process. In this process hydrogen and nitrogen are reacted in the presence of iron as catalyst at 450°C and 200 atm pressures.

N2 + 3 H 2 0405a0Z.F;7). 2N H3

Manufacture of nitrogen:

For Haber’s process, nitrogen is obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation of air

Marmfact: dr.o en:

Hydrogen is prepared by passing methane and steam over heated nickel as catalyst. The methane decomposes to form hydrogen gas.

CH4 “ea’n.heal > C+2H2

2. Carbon dioxide:

Carbon dioxide is the second raw material used for the manufacture of urea which is obtained by reacting steam with natural gas in the presence of nickel as catalyst.

CH4 (g) + 2H20(5) CO2 + 4H2

Main process and reactions:

The manufacture of urea involves the following steps:

i. Reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide:

Carbon dioxide and Amn .ania are heated at 170-200 °C and 100- 200atm pressure.

The ammonia and carbon dioxide react to form ammonium carbamate as: 2NH3 + CO2 —-> NH2COONH4

ii. Urea formation:

The ammonium carbamate is heated which decomposes into urea and water as:

NH2COONH4

-> NH2CONH2 + H2O

(Urea)

iii. Evaporation and granulation:

In this step, liquid urea is concentrated in vacuum evaporators. It is sprayed from the top of the tower under pressure and hot current of air is introduced from the bottom which evaporates water from liquid urea. It is rapidly cooled and sends to granulator tower. In granulator tower. Small granules are made from it and ‘stored in packs

A simplified flow sheet diagram of urea manufacture is given below:

Granulator To conveyer

Belt & storage

CO2

Compressor Reaction Steam

Chamber evaporator

Q.6. what are the uses of urea?

Ans. uses of urea:

The uses of urea are given below:

I. As fertilizer: •

About 86% of urea is used as fertilizer.

Ii. As adhesive/glue:

Urea-formaldehyde resins are used as plywood adhesives/glue.

iii. In explosives:

Urea is used to form urea nitrate which is highly explosive.

Iv. As raw material:

Urea is used as raw material for many important things like plastic,

Resins, adhesives etc.

V. As flame proofing agent:

Urea is used as flame proofing agent.

Vi. In various cosmetic products:

Urea is used in hair conditioners, facial cleaners and lotions.

Vii. For deicing road ways and runways:

Urea is also used in the deicing of roadways and runways.

Viii. In cigarettes:

It is used as favour enhancing additive for cigarettes.

Ix. In hair removers:

It is used as a main ingredient in hair remover creams.

X. In skimming creams:

Urea containing creams are used as tropical dermatological products to promote rehydration of skin.

7. What is petroleum? Describe its origin.

Ans. Petroleum:

“A dark brown coloured and unpleasing smelling liquid that consists of mixture of various hydrocarbons, found in sedimentary rock of earth is called petroleum.”

Explanation:

Petro mean rock and ileum means oil, as it is present in sedimentary rocks of earth therefore it is called petroleum. It is also called crude oil or mineral oil. Since the wealth of a country depends on petroleum therefore, it is also called liquid gold. The important oil producing countries are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries etc.

Origin of petroleum:

There are two theories about the origin of petroleum which are given below:

i. Inorganic or abiotic origin theory:

This theory was presented by Russian chemist Mendeleev. According to this theory, steam reacted with metallic carbides at high temperature and pressure. Under the surface of the earth and produced petroleum. However, this theory did not gain popularity and was rejected.

ii. Organic origin theory:

This theory was stated by many scientists like Mikhail Lomonosov of Russia, T.S Hunt of Canada, Leo Lesquereux of America etc.

According to this theory petroleum is believed to from the decay of ancient plants and animals that were buried underground. Due to bacterial decomposition, high temperature and pressure they were changed to petroleum after passage of a long time this theory gained popularity and is widely accepted.

Q.B. What is the drilling of petroleum?

Ans. Drilling of petroleum;

“The process by which petroleum is taken out from the earth by the use of various equipment is called drilling of petroleum

Explanation:

Petroleum usually occurs at the depth 500ft or more. Petroleum can naturally come out of mines because it is usually present along with natural gas which exert pressure on its surface and take it out through the natural openings present in the earth.

In case of artificial mining, mines are bored. If the gas is present with the petroleum its pressure forces the petroleum to come out. If there is no natural gas then the air pressure is applied to force the oil from the well. The o us obtained is forced to oil refinery for refining.

9. Discuss refining of petroleum? OR How fractional distillation is carried out in petroleum?

Ans: Refining of petroleum:

“The conversion of crude oil into useful products which are free from impurities is called refining of petroleum. Petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation which is described below:

Fractional distillation:

The process of separation of a mixture into its fractions (components) on the basis of difference in boiling points is called fractional distillation.”

Fractional distillation of petroleum:

First of all petroleum is heated in an electric furnace above 400 ‘)C The heated mixture is then entered to a fractionating column. The fractionating column or tower is divided into various compartments. Each compartment has a definite range of temperature. As the petroleum vapours rise in the fractionating column, they condense and separate out into various fractions. The important fractions of petroleum or composition of petroleum is given below:

Fraction Boiling

Point

Petroleum Below Upto 4

Petroleum Below

Gases 40 00

Petrol and 40-130 4-‘2

Naphtha cc atoms Carbon Methane for cooking and butane for camping gas. Carbon-3 and Carbon-4 are portable energy sources. Naphtha for lighter fuel petrol for cars.

Paraffin 1 150- ‘ 10-16 carbon Paraffin for heating and jet

Oil (kerosene) 200 °C atoms fuel.

1 Diesel ; 225- , 14-25 carbon Fuel for Lorries and ships.

oil (DERV) 300 00 atoms

i

-i–

Lubricating

Residue Bitumen is heated with sand

400 °C and gravel and made into road

coal tar.

Small Molecules

• 1OW boiling point

• Light in colour

• Easy to light

• Runny

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Multiple Choice Questions

A. Choose the Correct Option.

1. When sodium Bicarbonate is heated to get sodium carbonate, all are Produced except

a. CO b. CO2

c. Na2CO3 d. H2O

2. Forth flotation process is concentration of ore by

a. Magnetically b. Wetting the ore

c. Difference in density d. chemically

3. All are the raw materials for the manufacturing of soda ash except

a. Ammonia b. Brine

c. Lime stone d. Carbon monoxide

4. Matte is a mixture of

a. Cuss and FeS b. Cu2S and FeS

c. Cue and FeS d. Cu20 and Fe0

5. The impurity present in mineral is called

a. Metal b. Ore

c. Gangue d. Salt

6. All are the raw materials for the manufacturing of urea except

a. CO2 b. NH3

c. H2O d. NaCI

7. Percentage of nitrogen in urea is

a. 14 b. 28

c. 60 d. 46

8. Blister copper is refined through

a. Concentration b. Reduction

c. Smelting d. Electrolysis

9. Petroleum is separated into different fractions by the process of

a. Simple distillation b. Condensation

c. Fractional distillation d. Destructive distillation

10. All steps are used for the extraction of metals except

a. Roasting b. Smelting

c. Evaporation d. Bessemerization

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Q.1 How you convert NaHCO3into Na2CO3?

Ans.Conversion of NaHCO3 into NaCO3:

We can convert sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate by heating. It decomposes to sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide and water on heating:

2NaHCO3 NA Cn H2O

Heat

__2_ CO2_ _2 +

Q.2 Enlist the different uses of urea?

For answer see question no.6

Q.3 Differentiate between mineral and ore.

Ans. Differences between mineral and ore:

The differences between mineral and ore are given below;

Mineral

“A naturally occurring substance present in rocks and ground that has its own chemical composition is called mineral.”

Ore:

“A type of mineral from which metal is obtained is called ore.”

Mineral may not contain metals. Ore contain metals.

All mineral are not ores. All ores are minerals.

Examples: Examples:

5. What is the function of froth floatation process?

Ans. Function of froth floatation process:

The main function of froth floatation process is to remove useless gangue from the ore. This is called concentration of the ore. This process is usually used for sulphide ores. The process is explained below:

Froth floatation process:

See question no.3

Q.6. on what basis the different fractions of petroleum are Separated?

Ans. Basis for different fractions of petroleum:

Different fractions of petroleum are separated from each other on the basis of difference in their boiling points which are given below:

Fraction

Bolinas Point

No. of C-atoms

Petroleum gases

Below 40 C

Upto 4 carbon atoms

Petrol & naphtha

40—130 C

4—12 Carbon atoms

Paraffin oil (Kerosene

150__200 C

10__16 carbon atoms

Diesel

225__300 C oil (DERV)

14__25 carbon atoms

Lubricating oil

300__400 C

20__7- Carbon toms

Bitumen

Above 400

C Residue

Q .7: What is slaked lime? How slaked lime is produced?

Ans: Slacked lime:

Slacked lime is a white inorganic compound with the formula Ca (OH) its chemical name is calcium hydroxide.

Preparation of slacked lime:

Slacked lime is produces when quick lime (CaO) is mixed with water. The reaction is given below:

CaO(s) + H20 (1) —) Ca (OH) 2(aco

Q.B. Assess the composition of urea and calculate the percentage of nitrogen in it.

Ans. Percentage composition of urea:

It is given below:

S.No

Element

Percentage

Nitrogen(N)

46.67%

Oxygen(0)

26.67%

Carbon(C)

20.00%

Hydrogen(H)

6.66%

Calculation of percentage of nitrogen in urea;

The percentage of nitrogen in urea can be calculated by the following formula:

2(atomic mass of N)

% of N – x100

Molecular mass of Urea

As, atomic mass of N = 14 a.m.0

And molecular mass of urea = 60 a.m.0 Putting the values we get:

% of N – 2(14) x100

60

% of N = 46.67°, 10

9: What is gangue and where it is found?

Ans: Gangue and its occurrence:

“The unwanted impurities present in an ore are called gangue.

So, it is clear in the definition that gangue is found in the ores. Composition of gangue:

Gangue is composed of earthy materials like clay, sand, rock and

Q.10: How blister copper is purified?

Ans: Purification of blister copper:

See question no.3 heading electro-refining of blister copper.

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How could you convert the concentrated ore to its oxide?

Ans. Conversion of concentrated ore into oxide:

For detail answer see question no.3

How would you use the roasting in extraction of copper?

Ans. Roasting and calcinations in the extraction of copper:

The heating of ore in the presence of air is called roasting. The temperature of this process is varied for different ores but usually it is from 500°C to 700°C.

The roasting of copper ore is given below:

2CuFeS2 + 02 –•.Cu2S+2FeS + SO2

The removal of water from hydroxide ore or removal of CO2 from carbonate ore by heating the ore in absence of air is called calcinations. The calcinations of copper ores are given below:

Cu (OH) 2

Heat CuO ±3H20

CuCO3

Heat CuO + CO2

Q: What inference can you make of smelting in extraction of copper?

Ans. For answer see question no.3

Q: when you elaborate the reason of electro — refining of copper?

Ans. Reason for electro-refining of copper:

The blister copper obtained by the metallurgy of copper is only 95-97% pure. Therefore, to make it more pure, electro-refining of copper is carried out. As, copper is important metal used in electric wires and electrical appliances like voltage regulators, transformers etc. therefore, it must be used in pure form. By electro-refining of copper, 99.99% pure copper is obtained.

2. (A). List the raw materials used in Solvay process?

An. For answer see question no.4

b. What basic reactions would you use to support the manufacture of soda ash?

Ans. Basic reactions for the manufacture of soda ash:

Soda ash is manufactured by Solvay’s process. The detail is given below:

Solvay’s process:

For more detail see question no.4

(i) Predict the byproducts in the Solvay’s process?

Ans. By products of Solvay’s process:

“The additional products obtained during the manufacture of a main product are called byproducts.

The only byproduct obtained during Solvay’s process is calcium chloride (CaCl2) which is obtained when ammonium chloride is heated with slaked lime in the ammonia recovery tower. The reaction is given below;

2NH4CI + Ca (OH) 2 CaCl2 + 2H20 + 2NH3

( ).Sketch the flow sheet diagram of the Solvay process.

Ans. For answer see question no.4

4) Enlist the raw materials used in the manufacture of urea?

Ans. For answer see question no.5

Q: What basic reactions would you use to support the manufacture of urea?

Ans. For answer see question no.5

(c)What is the advantage of recycling of un-reacted compound in manufacture of urea?

Ans. Unreacted compounds in manufacture of urea:

During the manufacture of urea when ammonia is reacted with carbon dioxide then it forms ammonium carbamate. But not all the ammonia and carbon dioxide are changed to ammonium carbamate. Some are left un-reacted. Therefore, the main un-reacted compounds in urea manufacture are ammonia and carbon dioxide.

Advantage of recycling un-reacted compounds:

The un-reacted ammonia and carbon dioxide are the raw materials for the manufacture of urea. Therefore, by recycling them main process of urea manufacture is carried out. Therefore, their recycling is of great importance.

d) Sketch the flow sheet diagram of the urea manufacture process.

A: For answer see question no.5

4. (Define refining of petroleum. Describe the composition of petroleum?

Ans: For answer see question no.9

Q: what are the two theories about the origin of petroleum?

Ans: For answer see question no.7

X) Write a detail note on fractional distillation of petroleum.

A: For answer see question no.9

(a) Write a detail note on metallurgical operations.

Ans: For answer see question no.3

(b) Explain the process of smelting and Bessemerization with reference to copper extraction.

Ans: For answer see question no.3 did)

Enlist the different uses of urea.

Ans: For answer see question no.6

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1. The metal present in combine state is called

(a) Mineral (b) metal

(c) Solid (d) alloys.

2. The blister copper is refined by

(a) Concentration (b) reduction

(c) Electrolysis (d) boiling.

3. Sodium carbonate is commercially manufactured by process.

(a) Sovey’s

(c) Haber’s

4. Chemical formula of urea is

(a) NH2COONH4 (c) NH4CI (b) Ostwald’s (d) Frisch.

(b) NH2CONH2 (d) Na2CO3

5. Urea is probably most important fertilizer.

(a) Nitrogenous (b) phosphate

(c) Organic (d) sulphur.

.6. Raw material used for manufacturing urea is

(a) CO2& NH3 (b) H2& NH3

(c) HCI& NH3 (d) CO2& H2.

7. Petroleum is mixture of many

(a) Hydrocarbons (b) hydroxide

(c) Acids (d) salt.

8. Different fractions of petroleum are separated by .

(a) Fractional distillation (b) steam distillation

(c) Cooling (d) gravity concentration

9. Which-one is a step of metallurgical process

(a) Roasting (b) rusting

(c) Crystallization (d) sublimation.

10. The blister form of copper is copper.

(a) Pure (b) impure

(c) Refined (d) raw.

11. Urea is probably most important——-fertilizer.

(a) Sulphur (b) nitrogenous

(c) Phosphate (d) orgic.

12. An aggregate of mineral and other impurities is known as

(a) Ore (b) alloy

(c) Metal (d) Non-metal.

13. For fraction distillation petroleum is heated above in a furnace.

(a) 400°c (b) 200°c

(c) 300°c (d) 600°c.

14. Solvay process is used for the commercial preparation of:

(a) NH3 (b) Na2CO3

(c) (NH2)2C0 (d) NaOH.

15. Petroleum is also called

(a) Crude oil (b) mineral oil

(c) white gold (d) all of these

16. Coal is converted to petroleum by process

(a) FT (b) Hyber

(c) Brick land (d) all of these

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