Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life 2021

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life

Chapter One

ELECTRICITY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life

SHORT ANSWERS

Q:1. Why a metallic chain is hanging from the rear side of a petrol supply tanker?

Ans. A metallic chain is hanging from the rear side of a petrol supply tanker to protect it from the negative effects of static charges. As the tanker moves on its body collects a positive charge from the friction of the road. This positive charge can catch fire if attracted by some negative charge. The metallic chain neutralizes this charge in the ground. Thus saves the tanker.

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Q:2. Define electrostatic induction.

Ans. Electrostatic induction is to charge a conductor without any physical contact with the charged body. When a charged body is brought near an uncharged conductor, it rearranges charges on the surface or inside that body. This charge remains till the charged body is kept close to the uncharged conductor.

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life

Q:3. Describe fuse and its importance.

Ans.

Fuse;

Fuse is a thin and small piece of metallic wire of a low melting point. It is connected in series along the main supply line so that the entire current passes through the fuse.

Importance of fuse; It prevents circuits from catching fire or causing any other damage. If current exceeds the limits, then fuse overheats, melts and breaks the circuit before it catches fire.

Q:4. What is meant by circuit, closed circuit and open circuit?

Ans.

Circuit: The path, on which the current flows, is called a circuit.

Closed circuit:

When the switch is on and current flows in the circuit then it is called a closed circuit.

Open circuit:

When the switch is off and currently does not flow in the circuit then it is called an open circuit.

Q:5. What is a circuit breaker? Describe its importance.

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Ans.

circuit breaker;

A circuit breaker is a modified form of the fuse. It performs the same function as a fuse. It is in the form of a switch that automatically turns off the circuit when the current exceeds its limits.

Importance of circuit breaker;

It prevents the circuit from catching fire or causing any other damage. If current exceeds the limits, it breaks the circuit before it catches fire or causes any other damages.

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Q:6. What is meant by current electricity? Describe its types.

Differentiate between AC and DC.

Ans.

Current electricity;

The electricity that is produced due to the flow of charges through conducting material is called current electricity.

Types of current electricity;

Current electricity is of two types.

Direct current;

The electric current that flows in one direction is called direct current.

Alternating current;

The current which regularly changes its direction is called alternating current. It is supplied to our homes. It changes its direction 100 times in one second.

Q:8. How does a lightning rod protect a building from a lightning strike?

Ans. A lightning rod protects a building from a lightning strike. It is fitted on high building rooftops. Its lower end is connected to a copper or aluminium wire which goes down to the earth. As lightning strikes the highest point, so when it strikes the rod, it goes down along the wire to the earth. In this way, the building is protected.

Q;11. Describe a switch and its functions.

Ans. the switch is a device used to open or close an electric circuit or to turn on and off an electric appliance. It is fitted in a live wire. There are many types of switches e.g. single-pole, main switch, push button etc.

DETAILED ANSWERS

Q:3. What is meant by resistance? How resistors are connected in a circuit?

Ans.

Resistance

Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how the device or material reduces the electric current flow through it. Resistance is measured in units of ohms ( )

Resistors in a current can be parallel or in a series.

Resistors in Series

There is only one path for the current flow and the same amount of current flows through all the resistors. The total voltage of the circuit is equal to the sum of voltages of the resistors. The total resistance of the circuit is equal to the sum of the total resistance of the resistors. Decoration lights are an example of a series circuit. If anyone bulb is missing or burnt out, no current will flow and none of the lights will work.

Resistors in Parallel

There is a separate path for the current flow for each resistor. A different amount of current flows through each resistor. The total voltage of the circuit is equal to the voltage of each resistor. The wiring system in the house is an example of a parallel circuit. If one of the appliances stops working, the current still flows through others.

Q:4. Describe the practical applications of static electricity.

Ans. Static electricity is used in many ways in practical life. Some of them are the following.

Electrostatic painting

Metallic surfaces of refrigerators, furniture, boxes, automobiles etc. are painted uniformly by static charges. They give the paint particles gets an electrical charge. When these charged particles reach the surface of a neutral metallic body, they induce an opposite charge on it. Due to the force of attraction between them, the paint uniformly sticks to the surface of the body.

Electrostatic Precipitators

Static electricity is used in pollution control by applying a static charge to dust particles in the air and collecting those charged particles on a plate of the opposite electrical charge. This keeps the air free from pollution.

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life

Q:5. Write about practical uses of current electricity in household appliances.

Ans. Current electricity is used in household appliances for different purposes like lighting, heating, cooling, washing etc. in all these situations electric current is converted into other forms of energy according to the need.

When an electric current passes the filament of a bulb it is converted into heat and light energy. In an electric room heater, electric iron and electric kettle electric energy convert into heat energy. In clothes washing machine, drier machine, hair drier, toaster and oven electric current converts into heat and mechanical energy. In electric fans, air coolers and air conditioners electric current converts into mechanical energy. Refrigerators, television, computers etc. need electric current for their operation. In other words, current electricity has become a necessity of our life.

Q:6. What safety measures should be adopted to avoid hazards of electricity?

Ans. The following safety measures should be adopted to avoid hazards of electricity

Don’t touch switches unnecessarily.

Never use electric equipment in or close to water.

Never play near broken plugs, electrical wires and appliances.

Never pull out a plug by pulling its cable.

Never touch any torn or tapped cable or switch.

Keep cables and switches away from heat and water.

Never touch an electric appliance with any metallic object.

Never go near a declined power line.

Never climb electric poles, transmission towers or fences around power stations.

Never climb trees or poles near power lines.

Always contact an electrician or relevant expert in case of any electric fault.

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Electricity in everyday life

Q:7. Write a note on energy generation from renewable resources.

Ans. We need energy for different purposes in our life. Some of these energy sources are harmful while some are environment friendly. There are a number of renewable energy resources such as wind, flowing water, rain, tides, waves, biomass, geothermal heat etc. Some of them are the following.

Sunlight

We receive a large amount of light and heat from the sun. In past, large spherical mirrors and lenses were used to convert sunlight into heat energy. Today, solar cells are used for this purpose. Solar cells directly convert sunlight into electric energy. The connection of a large number of solar cells is called solar panels. Solar panels are used in homes, offices, agriculture, space etc.

Flowing Water

Water is a very useful source of renewable energy. In the past, water mills were used to grind grains and crushing sugar canes. Today, water is mostly used to generate electricity. For this purpose, stored water in dams is passed through tunnels that rotate turbines. These turbines are connected to generators that generate electricity.

Wind

Wind is a useful source of energy. In the past, people used wind energy as a source of navigation in sailboats and sail ships. Windmills were used to grind grains and drawing water from wells. Windmills convert wind energy into mechanical energy. Today, wind energy is used for operating turbines that generate electricity.

Biomass

Biomass consists of animal manure, sawdust of timber mills, plants and trees residues, crop residue and used tires. Energy can be obtained from them either by direct burning or by fermentation. In direct burning heat is obtained which boils water, rotates turbines and generators and generates electricity. In fermentation, bacteria decompose biomass in a closed tank, which produces methane gas. It is used for different energy purposes.

Q1. Mention some careers relating to electrical Technology?

Ans. Following are some careers in electrical technology.

Electrician

An electrician is specialized in the electrical wiring of buildings, transmission lines, stationary machines, and related equipment. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure.

line worker

A line worker constructs and maintains electric power transmission and distribution facilities. Power linemen work on live and dead power lines.

Electrical installers

Electrical installers and repairers work in industries such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and more repairing and installing a variety of electrical equipment.

Power Plant Operator

Power Plant Operator adjust controls to generate specified electrical power, or to regulate the flow of power. Control and maintain equipment, such as pumps, fans, compressors, condensers, water heaters etc.

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