Chapter 18 Pharmacology Biology Notes Class 10

Chapter 18 Pharmacology Biology Notes Class 10

Chapter 18 Pharmacology Biology Notes Class 10. Best 2022 Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 18 Pharmacology Get short questions, long questions and most of it. We use your grades to help you plan your exams because we have standard grades.

Chapter 18 Pharmacology Biology Notes Class 10
Chapter 18 Pharmacology Biology Notes Class 10

Biology Class Notes 10 Chapter 18 Pharmacology Quick Questions.

Q.1) what is drug addiction and what are the effects of drugs?

The answer:

Drug addiction:

There are some drugs that, when used regularly, permanently alter the chemistry and nerve structure of the brain. As a result, normal functioning becomes almost impossible without medication. The body craves these drugs, and if they are discontinued, they often develop an uncontrollable craving for them. This is known as drug addiction.

Effects of intoxication:

  • physical negative physical effects.
  • The drug damages the self-esteem of drug addicts.
  • Loses the ability to establish loving and honest relationships.
  • Fewer turn out to be less and they have great difficulty expressing opinions or needs.
  • They are usually backwards.
  • Drug use increases crime rates.

Read more: Biology Class Notes 10 Chapter 12 Short Large Coordination control Questions.

AntibioticsVaccines
Antibiotics are the substances which are produced by one type of organism that adversely affects the other type of organism. A vaccine is a material that is prepared to produce immunity to a disease by stimulating the production of antibiotics in the body.
Antibiotics are categorized as bactericidal if they kill bacteria or bacteriostatic if they stop or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Vaccines include, for example, suspensions of killed or attenuated (harmless) microorganisms, or products or derivatives of microorganisms. 
In general, the use of bactericidal antibiotics is preferred but many factors may also suit the use of a bacteriostatic antibiotic.A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbes. 
In case of virulent microorganism or in the case of weak immunity, bactericidal antibiotics are preferred because they will not omit the problem from its roots but they will affect the normal microorganism in the body.whenever in the future microorganism of that disease invade the body, these antibiotics capture them and destroy them before the spread of infection 

Q.3) Enlist the bad effects of nicotine, caffeine, and cocaine. Are these addictive?

Answer:

Bad Effects of Nicotine:

Nicotine is a powerful poison and was widely used as an insecticide in the past. When inhaled through tobacco smoking, it reaches our circulatory system and not only hardens the walls of the arteries but also damages the brain tissues.

Bad Effects of Caffeine:

  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Digestive Issues
  • Muscle Breakdown
  • Addiction
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Rapid Heart Rate
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent Urination and Urgency

Bad Effects of Cocaine:

  • Anxiety
  • Sleep disorders
  • Muscle twitches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rapid and weak pulse
  • Chest pain
  • Heart attack
  • Kidney failure
  • Hypothermia (low body temperature)
  • Seizures
  • Increased heart rate and body temperature
  • Brain haemorrhage
  • Stroke and convulsions
Chapter 18 Pharmacology Biology Notes Class 10
Chapter 18 Pharmacology Biology Notes Class 10

Q.4) What are the responsibilities of society to deal with drug addicts?

Answer:

Drugs abuse causes multiple problems for centuries and communities. The medical and psychological effects are very obvious. Addicts cannot function as normal members of society. They neglect or abuse their families, and eventually require expensive treatment or hospitalization.

However, the menace of drugs can be fought. Education is the first battle. Children need to be told at home and in school about drugs. People need to be aware of the effects so that they can make avoid this problem. A second approach is to increase police manpower and powers to stop dealers and to enforce the law. However the main target should be the users. Families and counselors need to talk to children and people at risk. Parents need to look at their children and help them to jobs are needed to give people a role in the society.

The commonly used treatment for the drug addiction is admitting the person in the hospital or rehabilitation home where they are gradually weaned of the drugs.
A drug addict can never be healed by criticism, control or manipulation. A successful treatment of addiction requires empathy and understanding. Once the addict develops psychological resources to deal with intense painful emotions, lack of reliable and dependable relationships and narcissistic vulnerabilities they do not need drugs.

 Q.5) How are vaccines prepared?

Answer:

Vaccines are prepared by taking viruses or bacteria and weakening them so that they can’t reproduce (or replicate) themselves very well or so that they can’t replicate at all. Children given vaccines are exposed to enough of the virus or bacteria to develop immunity, but not enough to make them sick. There are different ways that viruses and bacteria are weakened to make vaccines:

  • Change the virus genes, so that the virus replicates poorly.
  • Destroy the virus genes so that the virus can’t replicate at all.
  • Use only a part of the virus or bacteria. Because the viral or bacterial genes are not present in the vaccine, the viruses or bacteria can’t replicate.

Q.6) Give two examples of drugs, which are extracted from plants.

Answer:

Psilocybin and mescaline are two drugs which are taken orally. they are hallucinogens. Psilocybin is extracted from a mushroom while mescaline is present in the cactus plant.

 Q.7) Define drug addiction. What are the three major categories of drugs, which can cause addiction?

Answer:

Drug Addiction:

Addiction of drugs very quickly after just one or two uses, the person may develop a strong desire for the drug. It becomes compulsory for them to use the drug again. There are three major categories of drugs;

It still leaves some people who are not adults. They may need some extra help and support. It is important to ask about population-seeking treatments, what about them and their lives that make natural or artificial rehabilitation particularly difficult for them. Many people suffer from mental health disorders, some face real social and environmental barriers. When treatment is offered, it is important to prepare it individually and not to offer “one size fits all”.

Some people go to 12 step fellowships and are taught that they have had a lifelong illness or disease or allergy – which they are told is powerless. Surprisingly, studies have repeatedly shown that people who believe in it fall back more or less severely than those who go for secular evidence-based treatment – or indeed no cure at all. do not have.

Changing habits is not easy. A book on self-directed behavior change will give you the opportunity to plan for success. And if you want community support in your early days, try Smart Recovery, who has trained facilitators using scientifically proven methods.

1. Sedatives
2. Hallucinogen
3. Narcotics

 Q.8) Define analgesic, antibiotics and sedatives.

Answer:

Analgesic:

Analgesic is a highly addictive drug. It gives a feeling of wellbeing, relaxation, and sedation. Its use leads to respiratory depression and ultimately death. A common example is heroin.

Antibiotics:

Antibiotics are medicine which is used for bacterial infections. An antibiotic is a drug that kills bacteria or stops it from increasing in number.

Sedatives:

Sedatives are the drugs that slow down the brain functions. Sedative blocks the brain chemicals that conduct communication between brain cells. In this way, sedatives induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Common sedatives are phenobarbital and diazepam.

 Q.9) Differentiate between bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics.

Answer:

Antibiotics  are categorized as bactericidal and bacteriostatic. Bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria while bacteriostatic antibiotics stop or inhibit the growth of bacteria.

 Q.10) Define narcotics and give examples.

Answer:

Narcotics:

Narcotics are a small family of drugs obtained from opium (sap of poppy plant). Narcotics relieve pain, induce sleep, and cause dullness to the senses. Narcotics work on the central nervous system; the brain and the spinal cord. These drugs produce euphoria (sense of well-being) and daydreaming (escape from reality) for some time.

Examples:

1. Opium contains analgesic drugs such as morphine and heroin, which are highly addictive.
2. Codeine is also obtained from opium. It is used in cough syrups. 

Q.1) What roles do drugs play in our life?

Answer:

Role of Drugs in our Life:

Drug means any compound that can modify the biological functions of living organisms. This definition includes not only medicines that have beneficial effects in the treatment of various disorders, but also chemicals such as caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, illegal substances of abuse, and a variety of man-made or natural environmental toxins. Pharmacologists study the action of all these substances.

The term medicinal drug is used for any chemical substance, which is used to promote healing, cure disease, control or slow down the progression of the disease, prevent disease, decrease complications or reduce excessive harmful activity in the body.

We take drugs through two routes i.e. orally or through injections. Oral drugs are absorbed from our digestive tract into the blood. The blood carries the drug to the liver, where its metabolism occurs. From the liver, the metabolic products of the drug enter the blood again and move to its target tissues.

When a drug enters the target tissue it performs its action. The by-products of the action of drugs are carried from the tissues to the kidneys, which excrete them out. The second route of drug administration is through injections. Drugs are injected in the muscles (intramuscular) or directly in veins (intravenous). Such drugs bypass the route to the liver. In this case, the entire drug is distributed to tissues and its action is faster.

Important Uses of Medicinal Drugs:

1. Painkillers:

These drugs reduce or relieve pains like headaches, sore muscles, arthritis or any number of other aches and pains. Painkiller drugs are also called analgesics, Different painkillers are used in medicine. All these have advantages and they carry risks too. Some types of pain respond better to certain painkillers than others.
Some painkillers act directly at the site of the affected area to relieve inflammation, others act in the brain to alleviate or stop the sensation of pain. Many painkillers are based on two naturally occurring drugs i.e. aspirin and opiates.

2. Antibiotics:

Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections. Antibiotics cure diseases by killing bacteria or by stopping their growth (division). The first antibiotic penicillin was discovered accidentally from a fungus (Penicillin). Today, over 100 different antibiotics are available to cure minor, as well as life-threatening infections. Your doctor can best determine if an antibiotic needed to be administered for a disease or not.

3. Vaccines:

A vaccine is any preparation intended to produce immunity against a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies. Common examples of vaccines are vaccines against smallpox, polio, whooping cough and hepatitis B.

4. Sedatives:

Sedatives are drugs that slow down the brain functions. Sedatives block the brain chemicals that conduct communication between brain cells. In this way, sedatives induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Common sedatives are phenobarbital and diazepam.

 Q.2) Differentiate between narcotics and drugs, What are different symptoms of drug addiction?

Answer:

Narcotics:

Narcotics are a small family of drugs obtained from opium (sap of poppy plant). Narcotics relieve pain, induce sleep and cause dullness to the senses. Narcotics work on the central nervous system; brain and spinal cord.

Drugs:

Drugs are substances that alter the normal functions of the body. there are some drugs, which permanently change the chemistry and neural structure of the brain.

Symptoms of Drug Addiction:

Although different drugs have different physical effects, the symptoms of addiction are similar. We can study the addiction in terms of physical, behavioral and psychological signs.

a. Physical Symptoms:

1. Addicts have bloodshot eyes.
2. Changes in sleep or appetite.
3. Sudden weight loss or weight gain.
4. Deterioration of physical appearance.
5. The unusual smell on breath, body, and clothing.

b. Behavioral Symptoms:

1. Drop-in attendance and performance.
2. Financial problem.
3. Engaging in secretive or suspicious behavior.
4. Sudden change in friends and hobbies.
5. Frequently getting into fights, illegal activities.

c. Psychological Symptoms:

1. Unexplained change in personality or attitude.
2. Sudden mood swings or angry outbursts.
3. Lack of motivation.
4. Appears fearful, anxious with no reason.

 Q.3) What are hallucinogens? Give examples with their sources.

Answer:

Hallucinogens:

They are drugs that cause hallucination. Hallucinations can be defined as; Intensive distortions in a person’s perceptions of reality.
Under the influence of hallucinogens, people see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that seem real but actually do not exist. Hallucinogens cause their effects by disrupting the interaction of nerve cells and the chemical messengers in the brain. Many types of substances are classified as hallucinogens and are generally illegal to use. Some examples of hallucinogens are given below.
Examples with Sources:

  1. Marijuana is a dry, shredded mixture of flowers, stems, seeds, and leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa. It is a hallucinogen widely used in Pakistan. Taken through smoke or orally, it produces feelings like excitement, relaxation, laughter, and the perception of slowing down of time, etc. Its side effects are anxiety, dizziness, fear, increased heart rate, dry mouth, memory loss, less coordination, poor sense of balance, and slower reaction time.
  2. Psilocybin and mescaline are other hallucinogens. These drugs are taken orally. Psilocybin is extracted from a mushroom while mescaline is present in the cactus plant.
  3. Dextromethorphan is another hallucinogen (also used in cough syrups). It is synthesized in laboratories. The chemical structure of dextromethorphan resembles morphine. Dextromethorphan produces the hallucination of being out f one’s body.

 Q.4) Describe the mechanisms of action of three groups of antibiotics. Also mention the disease for which each of these groups is used.

Answer:

Mode of Action of Three Groups of Antibiotics:

  1. Sulfonamides:
    They inhibit the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria. Folic acid is required to make new DNA. So bacteria stop dividing.
    1. Diseases:
      Sulfonamides are used to treat pneumonia and urinary tract infections.
    2. Tetracycline:
      Tetracycline antibiotics are bacteriostatic and inhibit bacterial protein synthesis.
    3. Diseases:
      tetracycline are used in the treatment of infections of the respiratory tract, sinuses, middle ear, urinary tract, skin, and intestines, etc.
    4. Cephalosporin’s:
      These antibiotics interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial Cell Wall.

 Diseases:

Cephalosporin is used to treat pneumonia, strep throat, tonsillitis, bronchitis, various types of skin infections, gonorrhea, urinary tract infections, etc. 

Q.5) What are vaccines? Describe the different ways of producing vaccines.

Answer:

Vaccines:

A vaccine is a substance prepared to produce immunity against disease by stimulating the production of antibodies in the body.

Different Ways of Producing Vaccines:
Vaccines are made by taking viruses or bacteria and weakening them so that they can’t reproduce (or replicate) themselves very well or so that they can’t replicate at all. There are different ways that viruses and bacteria are weakened to make vaccines:

  1. Change the virus genes, so that the virus replicates poorly.
  2. Destroy the virus genes, so that the virus can’t replicate at all.
  3. Use only a part of the virus or bacteria. Because the viral or bacterial genes are not present in the vaccine, the viruses or bacteria can’t replicate.

 Q.6) What are the different classes of antibiotics and what is resistance to antibiotics?

Answer:
Classes of Antibiotics:
Antibiotics can be classified on the basis of chemical structure. Some of the major classes of antibiotics are as follows;

1. Sulfonamides:
Sulfonamides are synthetic antibiotics that contain the sulfonamide group. These are bacteriostatic in action. They inhibit the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria. Folic acid is required to make new DNA. So bacteria stop dividing. Sulfonamides are used to treat pneumonia and urinary tract infections.
Sulfonamides interfere with a metabolic pathway that synthesizes folic acid (folate). In particular, they are structurally similar to a precursor molecule called Para – amino benzoic acid (PABA) and prevent its association with other precursors. It prevents bacteria from forming folate, which is needed, among other things, for the synthesis of bases in DNA and RNA. Therefore, without folate, bacteria cannot make new DNA and therefore cannot reproduce it.

Inhibiting folate synthesis is not a problem for humans because we (and all other animals, AFAIK) cannot make folate anyway. We lack this metabolic pathway, and we need to eliminate folate (vitamin B-9) from our diet. Thus sulfonamides selectively inhibit the growth of bacteria (and some other microbes) but are relatively harmless to humans (except for allergies, of course).

2. Tetracycline’s:
tetracycline are derived from a species of Streptomyces bacteria. Tetracycline antibiotics are bacteriostatic and inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Tetracycline is used in the treatment of infections of the respiratory tract, sinuses, middle ear, urinary tract, skin, and intestines, etc.

3. Cephalosporin’s:
Cephalosporin’s are derived from a species of bacteria Cephalosporin. Cephalosporin is bactericidal. These antibiotics interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cephalosporin is used to treat pneumonia, strep throat, tonsillitis, bronchitis, various types of skin infections, gonorrhea, urinary tract infections, etc.

Antibiotics Resistance:
Most modern medicines are not possible without antibiotics. For example, there is no immune treatment available in transplantation. Cancer is difficult to treat without the availability of antibiotic cores and more complex surgery. Remember that resistance greatly reduces our ability to treat diseases. In the pre-antibiotic era, about 10% of hospital patients died from infections, this is the era when germ theory was established and hospital cleanliness was well understood.

So we will come back to the time when all bacterial infections were potentially fatal. The first case in which penicillin was used involved a police officer with a staph infection, probably from an abscess. He died because there were not enough antibiotics until he was excreted in the urine and reused.

Antibiotics began in official research. Penicillin was developed in WW2 for the treatment of day-to-day injuries. After the war, pharmaceutical companies developed other antibiotics and funded much research.

Our main problem is that antibiotics are no longer viewed with a shareholder value and industrial research has largely stalled.

“The World Health Organization describes antibiotic-resistant bacteria as “nightmare bacteria”. They pose a catastrophic threat to people in every country in the world.”
Antibiotics play an extremely important role in modern medicine. However, bacteria have a tremendous capability of developing resistance to them. When bacteria are exposed to the same antibiotics over and over, the bacteria can change and are no longer affected by the same antibiotic.

Bacteria have a number of ways to become antibiotic-resistant. For example, they possess an internal mechanism of changing their structure so that any given antibiotic no longer works to inhibit or kill them. They can also develop ways to inactivate or neutralize the antibiotic. Some bacteria can transfer the genes coding for antibiotic resistance to other bacteria to acquire resistance.

Resistance to antibiotics poses a serious and growing problem because some infectious diseases are becoming more difficult to treat. Resistant bacteria do not respond to antibiotics and continue to cause infection. Some of these resistant bacteria can be treated with more powerful antibiotics.

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