Approaches of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 2 AIOU
Approaches of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 2 AIOU. As you know, Art is created when an artist creates a beautiful object, or produces a stimulating experience. In addition, the word “artist” is included to allow for the context of the work; the word “beautiful” is included to reflect the need for some “aesthetic” value; while the phrase “that is considered by his/her viewers to have artistic merit” is included to reflect the need for some basic acceptance of the artist’s efforts. Approaches of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 2 AIOU
Approaches of Art and Crafts
After reading this unit you will be able to learn about:
- Link in science, art and craft
- Approaches art and crafts
- Integrated approach in art and craft
- Tropical approach in art and craft
- Sketching approaches in art and craft
- Selecting best teaching approach in art and crafts
- Use integrated learning design to teach art and crafts
- Link and relate art and crafts in everyday life to solve problems
- Create interest among students for art and crafts
Approaches of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 2 AIOU. As you know, Art is created when an artist creates a beautiful object, or produces a stimulating experience. In addition, the word “artist” is included to allow for the context of the work; the word “beautiful” is included to reflect the need for some “aesthetic” value; while the phrase “that is considered by his/her viewers to have artistic merit” is included to reflect the need for some basic acceptance of the artist’s efforts.
Whereas, Craft – derived from the Latin word “ars” meaning “skill” or “craft”. It is a useful starting point. This broad approach leads to art being defined as: “the product of a body of knowledge, most often using a set of skills.” The term “craft” indicates a skill, usually in use of in branches of the decorative arts for example ceramics and pottery, etc.
A key feature of crafts is that they involve a high degree of “hands-on” craftsmanship so the term “handicrafts is used and not skill with a machine. Metal work, wood turning, glass blowing, and glass art are examples of “studio crafts”.
Most graduate programs in Instructional Design and Educational Technology are squarely in the science column like psychology, human learning, and systems design. New graduates emerge with a scientific bent seeking order, precise applications and predictable results from their models and approaches refined in the scientific tradition. We learn from experience which is a craft what really works and what does not, and also that often unexpected creative ideas and insights improves our solutions is art. Clearly, effective design of learning experiences requires all three science, art and craft.
The diagram below, adapted from Mintzberg, shows how these three approaches to learning design might interact and the potential consequences of relying on any one dominant style. We have all seen examples at the extreme end of each style. Bringing only an artistic design style to a project may result in a truly novel, creative or visually stunning result that wows and inspires but does not teach. Relying on proven learning science often results in dry, uninspired instruction that may result in learning, but can be dull. Craft, uninformed by art or science, and often from untrained instructional designers working from common sense rarely ventures beyond personal experience, with hit and miss results at best.
SCIENCE (ANALYSIS) CRAFT (EXPERIENCE)
The triangle shows the combination of the approaches can also be less than optimal for producing effective learning experiences. Art and craft together without the systematic analysis of science can lead to disorganized learning designs. Craft and science without the creative vision of art can lead to dispirited design, careful and connected but lacking flare. Learning design based on art with science is creative and systematic, but without the experience of craft can produce, impersonal and disconnected learning.
Effective learning designs then, happen most when that elusive combination of art, science and craft come together. Where the three approaches coexist, through a skillfully assembled learning team the result is usually effective, motivational learning grounded in the realities of the organization. See also the table of these three combinations.
Table: Science, Art and Craft Combination for Effective Learning Design
APPROACHES IN TEACHING ART AND CRAFT
Approaches of Art and Crafts Code 6410 Notes Chapter 2 AIOU. There may be many approaches in teaching art and crafts but in common here are two major types given as:
1) STRUCTURED AND TEACHER-DIRECTED
Some art projects are structured and teacher-directed. The teacher has an idea of what to make and how to go about it. Specific directions are given to ensure a recognizable product. Often, there is little input from the children. For example, a teacher distributes a piece of paper with an outline of a tree. The children are instructed to use a dark color, such as black or brown, to color in the trunk and green for the top. They also cut or tear small circles from red construction paper. These are pasted onto the green top. The completed apple trees look nearly identical. Generally, this approach is used when art is approached with the entire group or small groups of children.
Most craft projects are teacher-directed. Seinfeld (1995) critiques teacher-directed art. Asking children to complete patterned artwork or to copy adult models of art undermines children’s sense of psychological safety and demonstrates disrespect for children including their ideas, abilities, and creativity. Children who are frequently given patterns to cut out or outlines to color in are in fact being told that they, and their art, are inadequate.
2) UNSTRUCTURED AND CHILD-CENTERED
An opposite approach is to be unstructured and completely child-centered. A teacher may distribute pieces of paper and encourage children to make whatever they want or encourage them to visit the easel or art center. In this approach, children have much input and choice. There is very little structure. Some children do very well with this approach. They may have a bank of ideas to represent through art. They may also see endless artistic possibilities at the easel or art center. Many children, however, are uncomfortable with this approach. It may be too loosely structured. Some children quickly exhaust of inventing their own daily art program. They look to the teacher for some structure, guidance, or possibilities.
According to Wright (2003), unsupported arts learning in the classroom sometimes can lead to a laissez-faire or “anything goes” type of practice. In this noninterventionist approach, the underlying belief is that whatever children do in the arts in valuable. For a teacher to interfere would stifle a child’s creativity. This hands-off approach restricts the teacher’s role to one of organizing the environment only and discourages one from suggesting ideas or processes that could mediate and scaffold children’s learning. With no input from others, children can sometimes become bored and even frustrated with experiences that invite only independent experimentation. Children cannot create from nothing. They need background ideas and suggestions. Teacher-directed and child-centered approaches are extremes. Teachers can elect for a compromise using support and guidance by adopting the role of facilitator within a guided approach.
Teacher can act as Facilitator
A teacher-guided approach offers the better of the two former approaches: slight structure with much child direction and input.
A teacher can supply the theme or an idea “Children, it’s getting very close to summer. Today, we will make a picture that reminds us of this season.” Although the theme is given, there is no specified product. Children are free to use paint, crayons, markers, or clay to make their own versions of what summer means to them.
A teacher introduces new materials to the students “Today I put some reels and buttons near the art table. I want you to look at them and think of how they might be used in art. Try out different ways of using them.” Children are free to use them as brushes, make a stamped impression, or paste them to a collage, as long as the rules for the art center are upheld.
A teacher can extends or builds upon an existing activity with new method Teacher can say to his/her students that, If you like, I could show you how to sew one out of cloth.” Or, “Did you enjoy your paper drawing? Would you like to learn how to draw?” These sentences may help the students in learning art and craft in best way with new methodology.
A teacher poses a problem “Let’s see how many different shapes we can cut out of paper for pasting.” Or, “How could we use these empty boxes and ribbon?” Or, “What will happen if we try painting on newspaper or the colored pages in this magazine?” When teacher imposes a problem and ask questions the students pay more attention.
A teacher extends art into other curricular areas ‘There seems to be a lot of excitement in your picture. Would you like to share it by telling me a story?” Or, “The dog you painted looks so happy, let’s work together and write a poem about it.” Or, “Perhaps you would like to plan a play for your pet.”
Different approaches may work for certain activities and certain children. Young children will not automatically discover how to use a watercolor set. They will need some direction and instruction in its use and care. They need not, however, be told what to make or what it should look like. For example, Sara is having difficulty deciding what to include in her summer picture. Her teacher senses her frustration and asks her to name things that remind her of summer.
Sara answers, “Sun and swimming” Her teacher further structures the task by asking Sara to choose one. With the teacher’s subtle guidance, Emily chooses the sun and now must decide if she should use paints, watercolor, crayons, markers, or clay to represent it.
Child-Centered Art or Teacher-Directed Projects Arts and crafts are terms that are often viewed as opposite. Motivation for art comes from within the child. Young children are dealing with autonomy and initiative. They are often not responsive or interested in teacher-directed experiences. This is especially true with art. When art is forced or extrinsically motivated, it may lack meaning, expressiveness, or detail. The art may reflect external expectations, or the autonomous child may purposefully create anything but what was asked for. The approach is reproductive in that the child merely reproduces the teacher’s product. By contrast, when the motivation and purpose for art comes from within the child, the artwork reflects personal meaning and purpose. When children have free access to materials in an art center, they have the opportunity to create meaning and purpose. The approach is productive, not reproductive. In terms of approach, art activities are viewed as developmentally appropriate while crafts are often teacher-directed, product-oriented, and lacking artistic merit.
The term project is presently used in place of craft. Although some would refer to teacher-directed activities as crafts, the terms are not interchangeable. Crafts have artistic merit, and craftspeople work long and hard to produce products, many of which reflect their culture. Crafts may also be functional as with candles, jewelry, clothing, or wind doorbell. Therefore, it would not be fair to use crafts in the same sense of teacher-directed art projects. Instead, teacher-directed projects, rather than crafts are the opposite of child-centered art. Substituting teacher projects for art does children a disservice for it robs them of the opportunity to make self-expressive, self-initiated art.
Place for Teacher Projects although teacher projects should not dominate your art program, they do have a place and are to your art program as spices are to cooking. Some people avoid spices while others use them sparingly to enhance but not overpower or dominate the taste of food. When should teacher projects be used? They can be used occasionally
1) With older children who have a solid foundation in processing and are interested in learning how to make art products.
2) When children tire of visiting the art center and appear to run out of ideas for processing. They appear stuck or out of ideas. It appears the art center is not being used.
3) To introduce children to new cultures by directly experiencing representative crafts. The process involved in making crafts must be tailored to meet the developmental needs of your group.
4) While allowing for individual expression, as in the choice of color or type of decoration added. For example, children can be taught how to make a piñata without specifying what it should look like when finished.
1) INTEGRATED AND CORRELATED ART AND CRAFTS APPROACH
Philosophy of education presented by John Dewey, the school is known as microcosm of everyday life. It act and functions as a small community facing its own problems and finding solutions through cooperative effort and democratic procedures. In progressive schools of the 1920s and 1930s, group activities were popular. Small groups of children worked on parts of a large problem that interested everyone.
Teachers developed a number of activities in order to help children clarify their ideas and communicate the results of their efforts in solving problems of common concern. Among the means of communication there are murals (work of art e.g. wall painting), puppet shows, table-top models, charts, displays, and bulletin boards. These activities are integral to the problem-solving process: and serve as a method of correlating the ideas of the group and reporting them to a larger audience. If activities are correlated, children could more readily achieve a personal integration of their experiences.
2) SKETCHING ART AND CRAFTS APPROACH
A sketch is derived from – studios, which means “done extempore” is a rapidly executed freehand drawing that is not usually intended as a finished work. A sketch may serve a number of purposes: it might record something that the artist sees; it might record or develop an idea for later use or it might be used as a quick way of graphically demonstrating an image, idea or principal. Sketching is generally a prescribed part of the studies of art students.
The term “sketch” has most often been applied to graphic work executed in a dry media such as graphite pencil, charcoal or pastel. It may also apply to drawings executed in pen and ink, ballpoint pen, water colour and oil paint. The latter two are generally referred to as “water colour sketches” and “oil sketches”. A sculptor might model three-dimensional sketches in clay or plasticize.
The term “sketchbook” refers to a book of blank paper on which an artist can draw sketches. The book might be bound or might comprise loose leaves of sketches assembled or bound together. Most visual artists use, to a greater or lesser degree, the sketch as a method of recording or working out ideas.
The sketches of some individual artists have become very well known, for example including those of Leonardo da Vinci and Edgar Degas which have become art objects in their own right, with many pages showing finished studies as well as sketches.
The ability to quickly record impressions through sketching has found varied purposes in today’s culture. Courtroom artists are usually sketchers. Sketches drawn to help authorities find or identify wanted people are called composite sketches. Street performers in popular tourist areas often include artists who sketch portraits within minutes.
Art educators today are generally skeptical of activities that use art materials merely to illustrate, chart, or graphically represent other subjects. Such activities are uncreative, time-consuming, and do not, in themselves, help children grasp the underlying relevance of art to their own lives. In relating art to other subjects, sensitive teachers give priority to expressive parallels; they do not use art merely to reinforce factual knowledge.
3) TROPICAL ART AND CRAFTS APPROACH
When we see dictionary for the word tropical has four senses which are given as:
- Relating to or situated in or characteristic of the tropics (the region on either side of the equator)
- Relating to the tropics, or either tropic
- Characterized by or of the nature of a trope or tropes; changed from its literal sense
- Of weather or climate; hot and humid as in the tropics relating to or situated in or characteristic of the tropics (the region on either side of the equator)
Tropical Arts is an inclusive, community-based theatre association. From well-experienced professionals, to grass roots participation, the organization finds ways to engage with the community and to express what it is we love about living in the tropics. So it can be localized in this sense.
ART AND CRAFT IN EVERYDAY LIVING
During the depression of the 1930s, nothing seemed more important than the routine of day-to-day life, doing useful things, and getting a job. Art teachers were forced to find free, inexpensive, or discarded materials for school activities. Because new household items were costly, children were encouraged to make decorative yet practical items to brighten their homes. Art teachers also acquainted students with vocational possibilities in art and emphasized skills in applied design for advertising, interiors, and crafts. In effect, the social and practical aspects of art were given more attention than the creative, self-expressive ones.
The concept of art and craft in everyday life was the basis for an unusual experimental program during the 1930s. With the aid of a grant from the Carnegie Corporation, the small town of Owatonna, Minnesota, became a center for total community involvement in art. The five-year program centered on artistic decisions in daily life–in city planning, architecture and interior design, landscaping, clothing, utensils, advertising, and recreation.
Special teaching units on art in daily living were introduced in the schools. This comprehensive community program offered the public numerous exhibitions and lectures on art while providing individual residents, business executives, and city officials with consultations on artistic decisions. (Melvin Hag arty, The Owatonna Art Education Project Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1936)
The spirit of the Owatonna Project can be found in contemporary art education. Environmental design, architecture, advertising, and other art of daily living are essential considerations in a comprehensive art program. Problems of designing spaces for living, working, playing, and traveling are considered in relation to the school and the neighborhood. Some teachers provide space and materials for children to create mini-environments that express a mood. Although children are still encouraged to make useful objects, they are taught to consider how the design of an object can be tailored to suit a specific purpose, person, or location. Art teachers also help children become aware of the ways that their everyday purchases may be influenced by advertising and package design. When we see the all approaches in art and craft we find that Art in everyday living is the amalgamation of these approaches having tropical to integrated one.
Arts and crafts teach children to learn in different ways and approach problems and challenges creatively. The process of creating art helps students get in touch with a different side of themselves that they aren’t able to access in other subjects like math and science. It helps children use their brains more efficiently. It also helps to develop their creativity and imagination. These are important tools for children because they teach students to approach things with an open mind. Learning arts and crafts also teaches children that problems can be solved and goals can be accomplished in multiple ways. It also encourages the child to try new ideas and take risks. Children who engage in arts and crafts learn to express themselves better. Art gives a child the opportunity to transform abstract ideas into something concrete and visual.
According to the Editorial, children who participate in arts and crafts are more likely to succeed at school and perform better on tests. Students involved in arts programs also tend to have lower school dropout rates than students who do not. Children who participate in the arts are also more likely to participate in math and science fairs, and win awards for school performance and attendance. Troubled students who participate in after-school arts programs tend to perform better in school as many researches said. Creating art helps build confidence in children and improves their self-image. This is because there is no right or wrong answers in art, so the child is less likely to feel that he/she has failed or performed poorly. Creating a work of art also encourages the child to push to complete a project. Completing tasks gives the child a sense of accomplishment. An arts and craft also give a child an opportunity to see himself in a new light and branch out into new interests. All this only can be true if taught in right way with right approaches and learning designs.
SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
Question 1): How an integrated approach in art and learning design can help the students to learn more effectively? Give merits and pros to support your answers.
Question 2): How as a sensitive teacher you give priority to art approaches so that your Students do not use art just to reinforce factual knowledge.
Question 3): An art teacher, are you in favour of child-centered art activities or teacher- directed projects, why support your answer with arguments.
Question 4): A teacher-guided approach is better with slight structure and with much child direction and input do you agree or not and why?
Question 5): How Effective learning happen most and why the combination of art, science and craft is necessary for effective, motivational learning?
Philosophy of education by John Dewey 1952
Melvin hag arty, the Owatonna Art Education Project Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1936)
The Art and Craft of Teaching Edited by Margaret Morgan Roth Gillette 1984
Voices of Experience: Reflections from a Harvard Teaching Seminar Edited by Mary-Ann
Winkles and James Wilkinson 2001.